The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921 Page: 293
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Some Precedents of the Pershing Expedition into Mexico, 293
ments, race and religious prejudices, and whatever else may shield
them from the punishment deserved for their transgressions. In-
ternational borders are therefore likely to be the scene of numer-
ous irregularities and conflicts which threaten constantly to in-
terrupt the friendly relations of the nations concerned. This has
been particularly true in the case of the United States and Mexico,
whose frontiers have all the features mentioned, plus, in the past,
a large number of wild Indians fond of war and plunder and void
of any regard for international obligations. The most important
border disturbances have resulted from the raids of filibusters,
banditti, and Indians; and the difficulties of dealing with the sit-
uation have been magnified by the inability of the two govern-
ments to reach satisfactory agreements regarding extradition or
mutual crossing of the border in pursuit of marauding bands. In
fact, the military and police forces of the two nations have not
often been able to co-operate effectively. Agents of the federal
government of the United States or local officials of the frontier
have accordingly been provoked in times of crisis to send troops
across the boundary often without the consent and even in the
face of protest on the part of the Mexican government. The most
important and conspicuous instance of such invasion was the late
Pershing expedition, but it is only one of a series extending back
for almost three-quarters of a century.
Thd Occupation of Nacogdoches, 1836. The first invasion of
this type was probably the one which resulted in the occupation
of Nacogdoches, Texas, in the summer of 1836, although the
United States government erroneously assumed at the time that
this town, being east of the Neches River, was within its national
domain. The year 1836 opened with the Texan revolution in full
progress. In March occurred the fall of the Alamo and the mas-
sacre of Goliad, and the following month witnessed the flight of
the panic-stricken Texans before Santa Anna's advance. At the
same time, the Indians on both sides of the border, apparently in-
stigated by Mexican emissaries, were threatening an outbreak
which, once begun, was likely to result in indiscriminate robbery
and murder. If other motives for precaution on the part of the
Washington government were needed, they could be found in the
hostile attitude of the advancing Mexican army toward the United
States and in the indications that certain of its citizens on the
southwestern frontier entertained designs of aiding Texas in viola-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921, periodical, 1921; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101078/m1/299/: accessed March 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.