The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921 Page: 43
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Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar
of the Consultation. On the 22d Smith was empowered by the
General Council to appoint Sam Houston, John Forbes, and John
Cameron as commissioners to the Indians. The commissioners
proceeded to the village of Bowl, military chief of the Cherokees,
and on February 23, 1836, a treaty was drawn up agreeable to
the wishes of the Cherokees.10
During the progress of the War of Independence the western
frontier was evacuated by the people before the advancing Mexi-
can army, hence there is no record of Indian wars in the West.
In the East the civilized tribes were kept quiet partly through the
promises held out to them by the Permanent Council and the
Consultation for a definite settlement of their claims. At the
same time, however, the Texans deliberately attempted to create
the impression in the minds of officers of the United States that
there was danger of an Indian uprising in the East, and it was
their success in this propaganda that caused General Gaines to
send some United States troops to Nacogdoches in the summer of
1836. By the treaty between the United States and Mexico both
nations were to undertake to keep their Indians quiet, and it was
this treaty that made possible the intervention of the United States
in the affairs of Texas. It is interesting to notice that the col-
onists had attempted to form an alliance with the Indians in the
spring of 1836.11
With the defeat of the Mexicans in the battle of San Jacinto,
April 21, 1836, and the subsequent withdrawal of all enemy
forces from Texas, those who had fled before the invaders returned
to their homes. Besides, the settlers in search of new lands pushed
out into territory regarded by the Indians as their hunting
grounds, and the surveying parties early became an object of sus-
picion, the surveyor's compasses being known by the Indians as
"land stealers."2 The Indians were very troublesome and threat-
10Marshall, A History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana Pur-
The relations with the Cherokees, their claims to lands in East Texas,
and their final expulsion from Texas, is so different from the relations
with the other Indian tribes that I shall treat it in a separate section,
contenting myself here with a reference to that tribe only when they
come into the natural development of the subject.
11E. C. Barker, "The United States and Mexico, 1835-1837," in The
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, I, 20, 21.
"W. D. Wood, "History of Leon County," in Texas Historical Associa-
tion Quarterly, IV. 204.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921, periodical, 1921; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101078/m1/49/: accessed May 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.