The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921 Page: 78
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The Southwestern tHistorical Quarterly
rights to the soil they occupied. He agreed to return to Arkansas
in return for payment for their improvements and transportation,
but he delayed on one pretext after another putting his agreement
in the form of a treaty, using the delay, it was supposed, to get
his forces together preparatory to resist the Texans. Even up to
the morning of July 15, Bowl assured Adjutant General McLeod
that he was willing to abide by his agreement, but again asked for
delay in signing the treaty. The Texan forces had assembled by
that time, and wearying of the procrastination of the Cherokee
chief, orders were given for the battle.
The council-ground was about five miles below the Indian camp.
When the Texans arrived at the camp they found that the Indians
had mobilized seven miles above. When the Texans approached
their rendezvous they were fired on by the Indians, upon which
the Texans attacked and drove the Indians from their position,
killing a number. The next day they followed their retreating
enemies, and in another battle completely defeated them, killing
almost a hundred, among the dead being Bowl. The Indians con-
tinued their flight, pursued by the Texans, until the 25th, when the
pursuit was given up. The main body of Cherokees reached their
friends in Arkansas, and save for occasional marauding parties the
Texans were free of them as nei ghbors permanently."6
The Shawnees, to whom Lamar had sent a warning on June 3,
decided to accept the offer of the Texan government to pay their
transportation and to pay for all improvements, consequently the
commissioners were able to sign a treaty with them, and they left
peaceably for the United States.8 The Coshattoes and Alabamas,
who had accepted the proposal of the Congress of Coahuila and
Texas in 1835, were removed to other lands in the Republic.
In his message to Congress on November 12, 1839, Lamar re-
viewed the whole Cherokee question up to their removal from Texas.
He gave as his reasons for expelling them from Texas: (1) that
they were immigrant tribes, asserting political rights; (2) that
they were a most enlightened and most wily foe, and through their
superior intelligence were able to control the wild Indians; (3)
that they had committed atrocities on the inhabitants of Texas;
"Report to Secretary of War, Telegraph and Texas Register, July 24
and August 14, 1839; Yoakum, History of Texas, II, 270.
"Indian Affairs, 1831-1841, Texas State Library. Lamar's message
to Congress, November 12, 1839, Telegraph and Texas Register, Novem-
ber 27, 1839.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, July 1920 - April, 1921, periodical, 1921; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101078/m1/84/: accessed January 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.