The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 26, July 1922 - April, 1923 Page: 20
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
depredations on the person or property of a citizen of Texas.
Trade was to be regulated by an agent appointed by the Texan
commissioner, and no trader was allowed to enter the Tonkawa
settlement unless he held a passport from the trading agent. In
turn, the government of Texas agreed to live on terms of peace
and amity with the Tonkawas, and promised to punish all aggres-
sions committed by Texans on the Indians provided sufficient
evidence of guilt was adduced. Colonel Karnes appointed Na-
thaniel Lewis trading agent, "to continue in office until removed
by the Government."'
It will be noticed that the treaty with the Tonkawas makes no
reference to land, but provides for peace and regulates trade.
There is no record which shows the ratification of any ether In-
dian treaty by the Senate during Houston's first administration.
However, as portions of the Secret Journals of the Senate have
been lost,02 it is possible that some of the treaties may have been
ratified between May 4-24, 1838, for here the record is lacking.
During 1838, Houston succeeded in having four treaties nego-
tiated with the Indians, although there is no record of their rati-
fication. These treaties were very similar. They contained dec-
larations of peace and friendship, and provisions to prevent future
depredations, and to regulate trade. The treaty with the Lipans
was made January 8, 1838; with the Tonkawas, April 10, 1838;
with the Comanches, May 29, 1838; and with the Kichai, Towa-
koni, Waco, Towiash, and associate bands, September 2, 1838.0"
IV. MEASURES TO REGULATE TRADE WITH THE INDIANS
Through government regulation of commerce and trade with
the Indians, Houston believed that the frontier situation could
be greatly relieved. In his message to Congress on November 21,
1837, he said:
The undeviating opinion of the Executive has been, that from
"Manuscript: Treaty with the Tonkawa Indians, November 22, 1837.
Indian Affairs, Texas State Library; Secret Journals of the Senate, 2
Congress, 2 Session, 102-105.
"2Winkler (editor), Secret Journals of the Senate, 100. The manuscript
for the period of May 4-24 has been lost.
0Manuscript: Indian Affairs, Texas State Library.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 26, July 1922 - April, 1923, periodical, 1923; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101084/m1/26/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.