The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 26, July 1922 - April, 1923 Page: 88
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88 Southwestern Historical Quarterly
of Liberty and Nacogdoches are very well provided with mills
and gins, and there is great progress in this industry in all parts
As to transportation of their products, Austin mentioned a
steam boat in the Bay of Galveston. He also indicated that a
company had been formed to bring one to the Brazos river.38
Apparently this plan was realized, for the next year Almonte
reported a steam boat plying on the Brazos and two others ex-
pected for the Neches and Trinity rivers.3 An item in the
Telegraph in 1836 reported that another steam boat, the Yellow
Stone, had arrived to run on the Brazos.37 Plans for bettering
the roads were going forward with rapidity, although the roads
were described as fairly good as they were.
The statistics of both Almonte and Austin are open to ques-
tion. Almonte's two months' tour was too brief for a compre-
hensive understanding of conditions, and Austin, although better
informed than Almonte, may have exaggerated in the effort to
make a strong case for Texas in its application for statehood.38
The labor on Texas farms was done by the farmer and his
slaves, if he owned any.39 The Texans were slave holders, but
not on an extensive scale. Large plantations with a hundred or
more negroes did not gain the foothold in Texas that they had
in the old south. One negro family was more often the rule
than a crew of fifty slaves. The farmer ordinarily worked side
by side with his slaves. Colonel Jared E. Groce had about a
hundred negroes, the largest number owned by one man in Texas
prior to the revolution.40 It was estimated in 1836 that there
were 5000 negroes in Texas, 30,000 Anglo-Americans, 3470 Mex-
icans, and 14,200 Indians.41 The estimate of 5000 negroes is a
"Austin's "Statistics of Texas," in Johnson-Barker, Texas and Texans,
"Ibid., I, 175.
"Almonte's "Statistical Notice of Texas," in Kennedy's Texas, II, 78.
'"Telegraph and Texas Register, January 24, 1836.
8E. C. Barker, in Johnson-Barker, Texas and Texans, I, 175.
8"Bugbee's "Slavery in Texas," in Political Science Quarterly, XIII,
"4Register of Land Titles, General Land Office, Austin, Texas, Trans-
lation, I, 264, 265.
4"Morfit to Forsyth, August 27, 1836, in Yoakum, History of Texas,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 26, July 1922 - April, 1923, periodical, 1923; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101084/m1/94/: accessed July 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.