The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 27, July 1923 - April, 1924 Page: 254
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
people situated as these were-a community so new that it had
not yet found itself; agrarian; poor; without experience in the
conduct of large-scale co-operative enterprise; thoroughly com-
mitted to laissez-faire ideals.
The history of the Texas State Military Board, though perhaps
of only local importance, seems to me a fair illustration of the
way in which such a community as Texas was in 1861 would
normally react to the new dangers confronting it. For this reason
the simple story may have a wider significance for the student of
institutions of social direction and control. It may as well be
said at the beginning that the Military Board was the only new
governmental agency devised in Texas for dealing with the exigen-
cies of the war. Although the Board was not established until
1862, it will be necessary to review some of the experiences of the
state government during 1861.
As soon as the Texas Convention had passed the secession ordi-
nance and provided for the union of the state with the new Con-
federacy then forming at Montgomery, Alabama, it directed its
attention to the United States forces along the frontier. These
forces, about 2800 strong, were well armed and equipped, and
might at any time become a menace instead of a protection. Scat-
tered in small detachments, they were forced to surrender,1 were
removed from the state, and were replaced temporarily by state
volunteers. It was expected that the Confederate government
would in a short time take over this task of frontier protection,
for the financial burden was too heavy for the state. The cost
to the United States had been about $1,500,000 annually; and the
state was not only without funds but the treasury was in deficit
more than $800,000.2 The tax system which had been unequal to
the needs of the State when conditions were fairly normal3 was
1The documents concerning the surrender of the U. S. troops and prop-
erty in Texas are printed in The War of the Rebellion, Official Records,
etc., Series I, Vol. I, pp. 502-636, and Vol. LIII, pp. 618-666. Those per-
taining to the Texas Convention and its agents are found in E. W. Winkler,
Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas, 1861, pp. 262-404.
2Miller, E. T., Financial History of Texas, 140.
'From 1852 to 1858 the expenses of the state government were met
almost entirely out of the money received from the U. S. for the sale of
the Santa Fe region. The people had not acquired the habit of supporting
their state government by taxation. Miller, Financial History of Texas.
86-87, 110, 133.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 27, July 1923 - April, 1924, periodical, 1924; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101086/m1/260/: accessed April 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.