The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 28, July 1924 - April, 1925 Page: 57
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The Expedition of Pnfilo de Narvaez
[among] to there had much hunger; that they had to go by that
river upward, toward the north, another nine or ten days journey
to the river crossing; that from there they had to cross. All the
rest they had to go to the west, to where there was much maize.
This they had also toward the right hand, to the north, and more
down through all that land, which must have been to the coast,
according to what afterward appeared, but that was very much
farther away, and that this other was much nearer, and they were
all friends to there, and of one tongue.2 These Indians gave them
great quantities of robes of cows, and said that these were killed
near there in summer, and that they had many.
Thus they went by this river upward the nine days' journey,
travelling each day until night, with very great hunger, always
sleeping at night in houses, and with people who gave them many
robes of cows and other things, which they would gladly have
exchanged for a few utrera cakes; because they gave them nothing
to eat, and had nothing, except a thing these Indians called
masarrones, which they gather from some trees. It was very
bad, and not good even for beasts, but [is] for some of them, who
grind it with stones. In the end it is all very fine, and thus they
eat it. The Christians ate some small pieces of deer fat that they
carried on their backs. They found on the road a few people,
who told them that they were going to eat the cows, three days
journey from there is some plains among the mountains, which
they said came from upward toward the sea, and these were going
there also. Thus they travelled by that river upward fifteen days'
journey, without resting, by reason of the much hunger that
From there they crossed8 to the west and went more than twenty
other days' journey to the maize, through a people somewhat hun-
gered, but not for long, because they ate some powder of grass
and killed many hares, of which the Christians always carried
more than they could use. On this road they rested sometimes,
'The Jumanos knew of maize in two directions: among the Opatas of
Sonora, which was "going from where the sun sets toward the north,"
and among the Caddo and Wichita on the Arkansas River and its tribu-
taries which was "toward the right hand, to the north," Oviedo, who
did not know of this last mentioned maize region, misinterpreted what
the Indians told them.
8At or below modern San Elizario. See appendix for a discussion of
their subsequent itinerary.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 28, July 1924 - April, 1925, periodical, 1925; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101087/m1/61/: accessed November 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.