The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 31, July 1927 - April, 1928 Page: 13
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Review of Work of Texas State Historical Association 13
of Brownie Ponton and Bates McFarland to the respective routes
of Cabeza de Vaca suggested by Buckingham Smith and Bande-
lier, as conclusive. They also agreed that Oyster Creek, the Brazos
River, San Bernard River, and Caney Creek, in the order named,
are the four rivers crossed by De Vaca and his associates after
leaving Mal-Hado, which were first identified by Brownie Ponton
and Bates McFarland.
Instead of Galveston Island as Mal-I-Iado, they have selected
ancient San Luis Island, separated from Galveston Island by San
Luis Pass, as the Mal-Hado of De Vaca, for the reasons that Gal-
veston Island is doubly too wide, three times too long, too far
from the first of the four rivers, there are no woods opposite on
the mainland, and it has no island "back wards" from it (toward
Florida.) The ancient San Luis Island is at the proper distance
from the four rivers; it is wide enough and nearly long enough
for Mal-Hado; Galveston Island becomes the island "back of where
they lost their boats," and the woods on the lower course of Oyster
Creek, which approach nearer to the coast here than do the woods
on any other part of the Texas coast, become the woods on the
mainland where the people called "de Charruco" lived.
These authors agree with Baskett in his identification of the
Ancon del Espiritu Santo, the two smaller Ancons beyond it, and
the "River of Nuts"-Paso Cavallo, as the Ancon del Espiritu
Santo, and the Guadalupe River as the "River of Nuts." They
establish the land of tunas as most abundant and longest known
in the counties of Kleberg, Jim Wells, Live Oak, and a portion
of Nueces. The first journey along the coast from the "River
of Nuts" of thirty or forty leagues would have taken them to the
vicinity of the present towns of Kingsville and Riviera. The in-
land journey thence of ten or twelve leagues, as described in the
narrative, would place them in the region between the towns of
San Diego and Falfurrias; and in this region the four survivors
of the Narviez army made their escape from the Mariames and
joined the Indians "from beyond," who met them there.
They identify with great circumspection, using much of Judge
Coopwood's local learning and arguments, the Rio Grande as the
"River like Guadalquiver, as wide as at Sevilla," which was
l probably crossed in the vicinity of Penitas; and the large village
I beyond the big river, was near Renosa Viejo.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 31, July 1927 - April, 1928, periodical, 1928; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101088/m1/19/: accessed June 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.