The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 31, July 1927 - April, 1928 Page: 60
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60 Southwestern Historical Quarterly
which are the Illinois Indians and a French settlement. The
greater part of the upper river has been explored and there is
trade with the Caynigua and Panni Indians.
[Caynigua, Panni and Apache Indians]
They are white Indians. They trade in clothing, French guns,
trinkets, and many other things. The French consider these In-
dians as theirs. They have not settled along the whole river but
they plan to do so. I have been informed that it is one hundred
and fifty leagues upstream from the Illinois to the Panni Indians.
The three arms of the stream which become Rio del Misuri unite
at the pueblo of the Panni to form this river which they say is
as large as La Palizada. These Indians form a buffer against the
Apaches and they have bitter wars with them. The Pannis are
considered greater warriors than the Apaches and they have taken
a great number of prisoners from them which they have sold to
the French. The latter buy them and keep them as slaves. The
three branches of the river mentioned flow out of a watershed
which is near the South Sea. Here there are a great number of
Upon the middle branch they say there is a large city which
years ago our priest and certain citizens explored, giving an ac-
count thereof to the French king. Various expeditions have been
made since up the same river by the French; but I heard that
they were finally lost. I have heard that one hundred and fifty
Frenchmen made an expedition two or three years ago, but I have
had no information of what happened to them. Indians do not
live in this large city, but it is inhabited by white people. They
must be either Tartars or Japanese from beyond the watershed.
[La Relacion Novissima]
Francesa says that from the summit of the range the coast of
the South Sea and many vessels can be seen. Father Fray Juan
Torquemada speaks of these white people in his Monarchia Indiana
and mentions the measures ordered taken by his Excellency, the
Viceroy of Mexico, both by land and by sea.
From all this information your Excellency can see what a con-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 31, July 1927 - April, 1928, periodical, 1928; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101088/m1/66/: accessed May 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.