The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 32, July 1928 - April, 1929 Page: 182
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
that Quivira was in the 40th degree of latitude. My own experi-
ence in becoming acquainted with the geography and geology of
Texas during the past twenty years prompts me to make the
assertion that directions are seldom accurate, that distances are
usually over-estimated, and that the length of a day's march too
often represents the best day's march. Quivira is generally placed
by historians in the state of Kansas upon the Arkansas, the Kansas,
or the Missouri river. All descriptions of the country traversed
are thereby ignored in order to put Quivira on a river running to
the northeast in the 40th degree of latitude!
It is a well defined principle of law that boundaries are more
certainly established by descriptions of and references to natural
objects or features than by calls for distance and direction. It is
this more certain method that I shall use to prove that the expedi-
tion never left the Llano Estacado, and that Quivira was within
the present limits of the Texas Panhandle.
The principal accounts of Coronado's route are the narratives
of Castafieda and Jaramillo, the letters of Coronado, the Relaci6n
del Suceso, and the Relaci6n Postrera de Sivola. These narratives
vary widely as to the distances, directions, and the number of days
that the expedition spent in traveling from place to place. How-
ever, they all agree on one important point, that the eastern part
of the journey was entirely upon plains, "so level that men became
lost when they went off half a league."
Upon Winship's translations of these narratives as given in the
Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, I have
based the following summary:
In May, 1541, Coronado's army, with "1000 horses and 500 of
our cows and more than 5000 rams and ewes and more than 1500
friendly Indians and servants"2 left Cicuye, with a treacherous
Indian guide known as the Turk. After a three or four days'
march a bridge was built across the Rio Cicuye. The march con-
tinued to the plains, passing a village of Querechos, and in about
35 days the army reached a "ravine like those of Colima."3 Here
Coronado with 30 horsemen (and 6 men on foot?4) left for
Quivira and the army returned to the Rio Cicuye.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 32, July 1928 - April, 1929, periodical, 1929; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101089/m1/186/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.