The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930 Page: 22
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Southwestern Ilistorical Quarterly
set sail on August 10 for Malta, Smyrna and Salonica, where short
stops were made, and on October 4 arrived at Constantinople.
Very little time was spent in Constantinople, for both Porter
and Wayne were anxious to get into the Crimea region to see what
use was being made of the camel in the war then in progress-the
Crimean War. On October 12, the men left for Balaklava in the
British transport steamer Imperador and landed in the Crimea on
October 17. The English officers afforded the commanders every
facility for the prosecution of their study of the camels.18
It may be worth while at this point to pause and consider the
lesson early learned by the men in charge of the camel expedition
concerning the nomenclature of "camel land." The word "camel,"
they discovered, was used generically to include both the two-
humped and the one-humped species, and that one is to distinguish
these species from each other by the qualification of the countries
from which they are said to have originally come-Bactria and
Arabia. The two-humped animal was thus named "the Bactrian
camel," and the one-humped, "the Arabian camel." The term
dromedary was confined to the saddle or riding variety of the
Arabian camel, for there was no riding animal of the Bactrian
species. Therefore, Wayne and Porter were interested primarily
in the Arabian camel, for, as they expressed it, the Arabian camel
was "one of the most useful of the domestic animals of the East."
A cross between a Bactrian male and an Arabian female was known
as the booghdee. This hybrid was, like the mule, incapable of
procreation, but "combining the power of the Bactrian with the
quicker movement of the Arabian, it is peculiarly valuable as an
animal of burden.4""
In the Crimea region, the two commanders found that the Ara-
bian camel was alone used for purposes of military transportation.15
The loads carried by the camels during the war averaged six hun-
dred pounds, and about thirty miles a day were covered en route.
General Napier told of a unique use of the animals in time of battle.
He organized a corps of one thousand men, mounted on five hun-
"Report, 30. Wayne to Davis, Constantinople, October 13, 1855.
"Report, 52-53. Wayne to Davis, at sea, April 10, 1856.
"Sketches of the camels were made for the party by Gwinn Harris Heap,
United States Consul at Smyrna, who accompanied the group. These
sketches are reproduced on pages 165-183 of the Report.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930, periodical, 1930; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101090/m1/30/: accessed May 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.