The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930 Page: 57
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An Anonymous Description of New Mexico, 1,818
an instructive background. Likewise, this intrusion of the author
of these Notes must be included in the long history of foreign
interest in this northern outpost, first manifested by the French
who just one hundred years before had reached the foothills of
the Rockies, and continued by Pike and other Americans after
1803. Finally, the Notes themselves supplement in a valuable way
the descriptions of Humboldt, Pike, and Pino of New Mexico
just at the end of Spain's rule in North America.
NOTES CONCERNING TI-IHE PROVINCE OF NEW MEXICO COLLECTED ON
MY MISSION TO TI-IE WEST."
Population. I have not been able to procure any accredited
list of the population of New Mexico. It is composed of free
whites and civilized Indians, a very few European Spaniards,
and absolutely no negro slaves. It may be estimated at fifteen
or twenty thousand souls.27
Militia. All the men from eighteen to forty-five are conscript
to military service and must always be ready to march at the first
order of the Governor, and often without pay. They are gener-
ally excellent horsemen but are armed only with lances, bows and
arrows. There are some, however, who have firearms. There is
no stronghold in the province, even Santa Fe, the capital and the
residence of the Governor is not fortified. There are neverthe-
less six pieces of cannon of 4,28 the only ones in all New Mexico.
For about a year there has been at Santa Fe a company of militia
who are on duty for a week, and then relieved by another very
regularly and without exception, although the province is exceed-
ing extensive, and in consequence, some of the company must
come from a considerable distance.
The present governor Dbn Pedro Maria de Allenda himself
"Historia, Notas DiplomAticas, Tomo I, ff. 192-197. Archivo General,
Mexico. The Spanish translation mentioned in the note at the end of
these Notes is in Notas Diplomaticas, Tomo 4, if. 166-177, of Providencias
sobre . . . Nuevo Mexico. The translation presented here is from
the copy written in French sent by Onis. I have ocmpared it with the
Spanish translation and have noted variations in footnotes.
"Bancroft, basing his estimates upon official reports, gives the popu-
lation of New Mexico in 1822 at about forty thousand. Bancroft, Arizona
and New Mexico, p. 300.
28Four is doubtless a reference to the calibre of the pieces.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930, periodical, 1930; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101090/m1/65/: accessed June 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.