The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930 Page: 60
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Southwestern HIistorical Quarterly
Sonora. The Province of Sonora, to the southwest of Santa
Fe, is extraordinarily rich in mines of silver and the facility
which is found in exploiting this wealth is such that the mines
are called in the country the placers (Los Placeres). It is, how-
ever, rarely that the people who devote themselves to this kind
of work amass there great wealth, being generally passionately
fond of gambling, horse racing, and cock-fighting, and only think
of pursuing or again taking up their labors when need drives
them to it.
The Province of Sonora although very little further south than
that of New Mexico enjoys a climate much more temperate. It
owes this without doubt to its differences in altitude, to its neigh-
borhood to the sea and to its distance from the mountains. Its
climate would permit cultivation which would add infinitely to
its richness, but all kinds of cultivation, even the most necessary,
are completely neglected there.
Civilized Indians. The civilized Indians in New Mexico are
various little tribes of Apaches and Yutas (Utes). They are con-
verted to Christianity and reside in their ancient villages, situ-
ated on some steep rocks, of difficult access. Although force of
custom makes them remain in such places, yet they cultivate the
plains at the foot of the rocks. This requires of them a great
deal of time and hardship to harvest them, carrying on their
heads, in baskets, the corn which they cultivate on the plains.
They think they live there in perfect security but they have not
yet been able to achieve this idea of perfect security. Each vil-
lage has its ancient hereditary chief who receives from the Span-
ish government a baton with a silver point and has the title of
Gobernocito. But there resides also in each village a Spanish
Alcalde who tyrannizes over them and often even beats them.
The chief of the village is obliged to furnish to the troops of the
king, when they pass there, water and fire, and nothing else. But
in spite of these very humane ordinances these unfortunate ones
on such occasions are exposed to all sorts of vexations, and are
ordinarily very happy to have their fowls taken from them and
their pigs eaten, and to escape in that way from worse treatment,
and that under the eyes of an Alcalde whom a paternal govern-
ment had placed there only to protect them."
88Melgares denied this abuse of the Pueblos. Writing to Cordero, he
stated that offenses had been committed by soldiers, who were punished;
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 33, July 1929 - April, 1930, periodical, 1930; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101090/m1/68/: accessed July 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.