The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932 Page: 174
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly.
short time in the harbor of Galveston to do the first printing on
The second expedition with an influence on printing history was
that led by James Long, a former officer in the United States Army.
This expedition, active from 1819 to 1821, made its headquarters
for the most part at Nacogdoches, where we shall find that a print-
ing plant was established and a newspaper published during the
year of Long's activities.
One of the most important events in Texas history was the
beginning of colonization of three hundred settlers from the states
by Stephen F. Austin in 1821. Many thousands more came to
Texas before 1835. As it developed, this colonization proved more
important to the eventual acquisition of Texas by the United
States than any other single influence.
In 1821, by the Florida treaty, the United States relinquished to
Spain its claims to Texas, but as this was the final year of Mexico's
successful war of independence, the title vested, to all intents and
purposes, in the new Mexican government. There came to be two
factions in Texas, one advocating rebellion against Mexican rule,
the other led by Stephen Austin, advocating a peaceful course.
The issue was brought to a head, however, in 1835, when Santa
Anna renounced the Mexican federal constitution and set himself
up as dictator. A "consultation" of representatives of the Ameri-
can settlements throughout Texas met at San Felipe de Austin
the latter part of 1835.
Largely through Austin's influence, a project of secession was
voted down and a program of cooperation with the Mexican con-
stitutionalists was adopted. Henry Smith was named governor of
the provisional government, with Sam Houston as commanding
general of the military forces. The forces of Santa Anna were
defeated by the Texans in several engagements, but a lack of
unanimity on the question of independence weakened further
operations. The tables were turned with the fall of the Alamo
and the subsequent massacre of its gallant defenders. Two weeks
later, another Texan force was defeated and slaughtered in like
manner. Sam Houston retreated to the San Jacinto, but here he
overwhelmed the Mexican forces and captured Santa Anna him-
self. This victory ended hostilities.
In the meantime, the proponents of independence had made a
declaration of autonomy on March 2, 1836. Sam Houston was
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932, periodical, 1932; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101092/m1/178/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.