The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932 Page: 256
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
its alliance with the Confederate States. John Ross, who had been
released on parole, went to Philadelphia where he remained during
the rest of the war. The strong Southern sympathizers of the
tribe refused to recognize the legality of this action, and chose as
their chief Stand Watie who eventually rose to the rank of
Brigadier-General in the Confederate army.
During the summer of 1863 a second expedition from Kansas
entered the Cherokee nation and devastated all the country north
and east of the Arkansas. The women and children fled for refuge
to southern Indian Territory and Texas, where they remained until
the end of the war; by August of 1863 there was scarcely a South-
ern family in the occupied region.4 The Confederate government
found itself confronted with a serious refugee problem.
The policy of the Confederacy toward the various Indian tribes
with which it established alliances was to assume all the obligations
formerly held by the United States. A Bureau of Indian Affairs
was created in the War Department, March 16, 1861," and a com-
missioner appointed." When the treaty of alliance was signed with
the Cherokee Nation in the fall of 1861 it provided for the payment
of annuities, most of which represented compensation for the inter-
est on funds secured by the sale of lands and held in trust for the
tribe by the United States government. The Confederate Congress
then made an itemized appropriation totaling $238,044.36 to pay
the amount due for 1861, which had not been delivered by the
United States government, and the annuities for 1862.7 At least
part of this appropriation was not turned over to the Indians,
however, because disorganized administration in both the Cherokee
and Confederate governments made it uncertain as to who had the
authority to receive the money.8 Moreover, the Confederate cur-
rency began to depreciate until even if the annuities had been paid
promptly the revenues of the tribe would have been seriously
4Stand Watie to Cherokee National Committee and Council, July 11,
VJournals of the Congress of the Confederate States, I, 151.
"Ibid., I, 154.
'The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confe -
erate States, 233.
sJefferson Davis's message to Congress, August 18, 1862. Journal of
Confederate Congress, V, 299. ,See also letter of Elias Cornelius Boudinot
to Stand Watie, January 22, 1863. MS., University of Oklahoma.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932, periodical, 1932; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101092/m1/260/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.