The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 36, July 1932 - April, 1933 Page: 19
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Forerunners of De Leon's Expedition to Texas
from developing into a general rebellion, it would be necessary for
the government to make a display of military force. Whatever the
attitude of the friars toward military force may have been, it is
significant that Father Larios, who had sided with the opponents
of Balcrcel4 and as late as October 15, 1674, declared that no
presidio was necessary in Coahuila, changed his mind concerning
the presidio. In his lengthy report of December 30, 1674, he wrote
that a presidio of at least a hundred men was necessary to protect
the convert Indians and to keep in check the wild tribes farther
north. Moreover, he had his misgivings over the small force that
BalcArcel commanded, "because," he writes, "although there is no
need for conquest, it is necessary for the Indians to recognize that
his majesty and his ministers have the forces needed to chastise
In September, 1674, the controversy between Balcrcel and his
opponents was definitely settled. Recognized now as alcalde mayor
of Coahuila, Balcarcel began his march northward, stopping at
intervals to interview the Indians and to found settlements.43 On
December 8, he reorganized the settlement of Nuevo Almaden and
named it Nuestra Sefiora de Guadalupe. In this place, the present
city of Monclova, he and the missionaries established their head-
quarters. For the Indians who resided in the neighborhood and
for those whom the friars meanwhile assembled from the North,
Barcarcel, on April 26, 1675, founded the town of San Miguel de
Luna and appointed a Bobole Indian, Lisaro Agustin, its first
As early as December 30, 1674, Father Larios contemplated
entering "in the beginning of February, the land beyond the Rio
del Norte which is eighty leagues distant from this town" [of
"Juan Larios to the Commissary General, Patos, January 15, 1675.
MS.-Arch. San Fr. Gr., Bib. Nac., I, 150-151. U. T. L.-In this letter
Larios commends the generosity of Echevers and refers to the new hard-
ships and persecutions which the entrada of Balcarcel have created for the
42Juan Larios to the Commissary General, Guadalupe, December 30, 1674.
MS.-Arch. San Fr. Gr., Bib. Nac., I, 141-149. U. T. L.
"On the way northward he founded San Pedro y San Pablo de Anaelo,
about twenty leagues from Saltillo; Santa Isabel, ten leagues farther up;
and finally Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, thirteen leagues north of Santa
Isabel. Three Franciscans took part in the founding of these places; viz.,
Fathers Larios and Dionisio de San Buenaventura and Brother Manuel
de la Cruz. See Estevan Portillo, Apuntes, pp. 53-68.
"Estevan Portillo, Apuntes, pp. 68-69, 98-102.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 36, July 1932 - April, 1933, periodical, 1933; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101093/m1/27/: accessed August 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.