The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 36, July 1932 - April, 1933 Page: 61
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A Log of the Texas-California Cattle Trail, 1854
They are industrious enough to raise a suficiency to keep them
from starving, but generally, as other Indians are, of no account as
citizens; their habits indicate somewhat of civilization; wearing
clothing and partly under the influence of the Catholic Church.
20 Watermelons, raised in July last, are still in good preserva-
Wild Duck and Geese are abundant within sight of the House;
three or five miles in the canfions Bear and Deer are found in
A few nights since a loud singing in the Town attracted my
attention. One of the men who lives with Rains suggested we
should go and see them dancing, I at once agreed; - this man,
a Fleming by birth, who had been interp[r]eter to the different
tribes on the Lakes and speaks some four civilized languages, has
been living among these Indians four years. I could have scarcely
found a better companion; we entered the little plaza surrounded
by huts built of Toula about ten o'clock. This was too early, for
the spirit scarcely enters before twelve, although they assemble at
sundown; the interval is kept up by conversation, low singing an
occasional dancer appearing, goifig through a few staves of song
then retiring. This being a preparatory, half religious, half
pastime-meeting for a grand fete to take place on Saturday, when
some of their up country friends are coming on a visit. I could
see very little that is worth describing; however it was worth seeing.
A log fire in the centre, cast its red light around the small space
showing the strongly marked features of about one hundred
Indians. The old men, were seated nearest the fire, the younger
ones came next while the women were kept in the background; a
few boys and girls were asleep on the ground, not being sufficiently
interested to keep awake, or concluding to take a nap before the real
business had commenced.
Those who were nearest the fire attracted my attention more than
the others; time seemed to have fought against them in vain, and at
last concluded to give up in despair; their faces so filled with
wrinkles that it was difficult to distinguish the mouth, their skin
like brown taned leather, their long white hair hanging down on
their shoulders made them look, to me, more than a hundred years
old; the low monotonous, but not unpleasant singing, with the
Ha! Ha! He-e-e chorus, accompanied by the Guitar . .. the
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 36, July 1932 - April, 1933, periodical, 1933; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101093/m1/69/: accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.