The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936 Page: 201
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Campaigning in the Big Bend of the Rio Grande
Brigadier Jacobo Ugarte y Loyola was leading an army up the
Rio Puerco (Pecos) over territory which had been crossed and
re-crossed by Spanish expeditions for over a hundred years; while
George Rogers Clark was winning the Ohio valley, and Washing-
ton, Rochambeau, and Lafayette were before Yorktown, Juan de
Ugalde was conducting four strenuous campaigns on both sides
of the Rio Grande; and at the same time that Washington was
despairing of success on the floor of the constitutional convention,
Ugalde was once more enforcing "the law west of the Pecos" in
a great general campaign against the Apaches, during which he
spent nearly five months in the trans-Pecos region. In the fol-
lowing pages it is the purpose to discuss the earlier portion of
this campaign, which is only one of a half dozen conducted by
Ugalde in New Spain.
Before coming to North America Colonel Ugalde, Knight of
the Order of Santiago and veteran of fourteen European cam-
paigns, was for eight years in charge of a frontier province in
the viceroyalty of Peru. Being sent to Coahuila in 1777 as civil
and military governor, he served there for nearly seven years
before losing his position as a result of friction with Comandante
Teodoro de Croix. The succeeding three and a half years were
spent in Mexico City as a simple colonel of troops.
Not being of a disposition to remain quiet under such conditions,
he spent his time preparing vigorous and elaborately documented
petitions for the royal eye, and in marshalling effectively the voice
of public opinion as represented by his numerous friends on both
sides of the Atlantic. The result was complete vindication and
promotion, Croix, in the meanwhile, having been placed in charge
of the viceroyalty of Peru. But before the arrival of the royal
order, the militant colonel was already on the frontier, the exigen-
cies of the situation having forced the viceroy to anticipate the
THE RETURN OF UGALDE
It was late in the fall of 1786 that Ugalde emerged from his
enforced retirement to assume active charge of the situation in
the Eastern Interior Provinces. During his absence from Coahuila
the Mescalero Apaches had taken advantage of the relaxation of
military effort and resumed their habitual harrying of the frontier
with added effectiveness and ferocity. In July, 1786, their attacks
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936, periodical, 1936; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101095/m1/221/: accessed May 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.