The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936 Page: 293
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The Free Negro in the Republic of Texas
and the remaining 24 claimed Mexican cities, mostly in bordering
The complete disappearance of this large number of Texan
Negroes and their descendants, in the short period of forty-three
years from 1792 to the declaration of Texan independence, prob-
ably cannot be explained through absorption, death or migration.
Legally, however, these de facto free persons of color and their
descendants disappeared with the organization of the Republic.
The fact that these persons were free Mexican citizens, owned
Spanish names and spoke the Spanish language, doubtless, was
a consideration in their classification as other than free Negroes.
The widespread admixture of Spanish, Indian and Negro blood
made accurate classification impossible and the presumption that
these hybrids considered themselves Mexicans and were accepted
by them as their relatives and countrymen, may account for the
fact that nowhere do we find Negroes of Spanish name and Mexi-
can nativity complying or forced to comply by the laws of the
Republic with the special regulations governing free persons of
Another large group of persons with Negro blood, virtually free
though legally enslaved, demands some notice. The contact of
black and white races everywhere has led to some intermixture,
and Texas was no exception. The paucity of women in early
Anglo-American Texas was an additional factor in leading white
men to take Negro slaves as concubines and wives. The children
of these unions, according to the common law, took their status
from the mother and legally were slaves. Many of these children
were actually free, and some fathers made attempts to have their
progeny legally declared free persons of color."
Benjamin Lundy, the abolitionist, on his second trip through
Texas made note of "two brothers, named Alley . . . in-
dustrious immigrants from the State of Missouri. They have
never married. They purchased, however, a handsome black girl,
who has several fine-looking party coloured children-specimens
of the custom of some countries."'
"Memorial No. 139, File 74, no date; No. 250, File 18, no date; No. 63,
File 15, January 11, 1848. Texas State Library.
'The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, Including His
Journeys to Texas and Mexico; with a Sketch of Cotemporary Events,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936, periodical, 1936; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101095/m1/319/: accessed November 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.