The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936 Page: 84
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
Francisco Xavier Mina, printed on Galveston Island and dated
February 22, 1817 ;2 and the short-lived Texas Republican, the first
issue of which was published in Nacogdoches on August 14, 1819."
Mina's Manifiesto and the Texas Republican are now considered, re-
spectively, the first imprint and the first newspaper of Texas. It
is the purpose of this paper to suggest that there was a news-
paper published in Texas in 1813, which is therefore, in the ab-
sence of still earlier printing, at one and the same time both the
first printing and the first newspaper of our State.
Who, then, was the first Texas printer and when and where did
he set up his press? As early as 1878 Texas investigators have
given the distinction to Samuel Bangs,4 a young printer from
Baltimore, who was attached to Mina's expedition and whose name
appears on the back of the Manifiesto. A. C. Gray, the first capable
historian of the Texas press, writing in 1898, similarly honored
Bangs,5 and in 1931 Mrs. Lota M. Spell entitled her scholarly
biographical sketch of the man: "Samuel Bangs: the First Printer
Mexican and Cuban historians, on the other hand, have long
intimated that the first printing in Texas was done under the
direction of Jos6 Alvarez de Toledo, a thirty-four-year-old Cuban,
who came to Texas to aid the Guti6rrez-Magee filibustering expe-
dition in the spring of 1813--almost four years before Bangs
visited Texas.' Lucas Alamin, writing in 1851, said that Toledo
'Mina's Manifiesto is reprinted in Carlos Maria Bustamante's Cuadro
hist6rico de la Revolucion Mexicana (Mexico, 1843-1860), IV, 317-323.
For a discussion of this printing, see Mrs. Lota M. Spell, "Samuel
Bangs: the First Printer in Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly,
'Extracts and notices of the Texas Republican have been found in
Nashville, Natchez, New Orleans, and St. Louis newspapers. See E. W.
Winkler, "The Texas Republican," Quarterly of the Texas State Histori-
cal Association, VI, 162-165, VII, 242-243; Southwestern Historical Quar-
terly, XVI, 329-331. C. S. Brigham, "Bibliography of American News-
papers," in Proceedings of American Antiquarian Society, new series,
XXXV, 98. D. C. McMurtrie, "The First Texas Newspaper," Southwest-
ern Historical Quarterly, XXXVI, 41-46.
4Galveston News, February 17, 1878.
'Gray, A. C., "History of the Texas Press," in Dudley G. Wooten's
Comprehensive History of Texas (Dallas, 1898), II, 368.
'Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXV, 267-278.
7Josi Alvarez de Toledo y Dubois was born in Havana on May 14,
1779. His father Luis de Toledo, a native of Seville, held various
Cuban military positions. Jose was educated in Spain and later studied
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936, periodical, 1936; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101095/m1/98/: accessed June 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.