The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936 Page: 85
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The Earliest Printing and First Newspaper in Texas
had a press," and he is supported by Gonzdlez (1867), Cossio
(1925), Trelles (1926), and Robles (1932).9
Careful students have been slow to accept the claim made for
Toledo because no reprint of his work is known to exist, as is the
case with Mina's Man ifiesto, and not even extracts have been found,
as is the case with the Texas Republican. Newly discovered and
identified evidence, however, permits us to construct a much
stronger case for Toledo, and makes it probable rather than possi-
at the naval school in Cadiz. He supported the Spanish cause in the
Peninsular War, but in 1811 began to agitate for Cuban Independence.
In July his activities were discovered and he was forced to escape to
the United States. Establishing himself in Philadelphia, Toledo won
considerable sympathy for the anti-Spanish cause by writing newspaper
articles and pamphlets. Late in December, 1811, he met and probably
made an alliance with Bernardo Gutiarrez, a Mexican patriot, who was
soliciting aid in Washington. Guti6rrez returned to the frontier and
late in 1812 invaded Texas. When Toledo learned that fighting had
started, he got together a small party and set out for the scene of con-
flict. Because of Guti~rrez's unpopularity Toledo was able to displace
him as commander of the insurgents. He had been in command just
two weeks when General Joaqufn de Arredondo and a large Spanish
army almost wiped out his forces at the Battle of the Medina, near
San Antonio, August 18, 1813. Toledo managed to escape to Louisiana,
and for more than two years plotted a second invasion. In December,
1815, when matters seemed hopeless to him, Luis de Onis, the Spanish
minister, offered the King's pardon if he would return to Spain. After
a delay of a few months Toledo accepted. He arrived in Madrid in
March, 1817. All Mexican sympathizers naturally denounced him as a
traitor, and Guti6rrez charged that he was in Spanish pay all along.
Back in Spain Toledo used his unusual charm and intelligence to such
advantage that he married the rich widow of the Duke of Medina
Sidonia. Through his wife, who was the aunt of the future Empress
Eug6nie of France, Toledo won several diplomatic positions. He was
ambassador to Naples in 1831. In later life he moved to Paris, where
he died April 16, 1858. This short sketch is based in part upon Carlos
M. Trelles' Un Precursor de la Independencia de Ouba: Don Jose Alvarez
de Toledo, Academia de la Historia de Cuba, Havana, 1926. A full length
biography of this interesting and somewhat puzzling man is needed.
SAlaman, Lucas, Historia de Mdjico (Mexico, 1849-1852), III, 487-488.
Alam&n drew much of his Historiat from personal observation, and could
easily have heard the story of Toledo's press from eyewitnesses. It is
evident that he also used the Breve Apologia (1827) of Bernardo
Guti6rrez. (See note 37.)
'Gonzdlez, Jose Eleuterio, Coleocion de Noticias y Documentos para
la historia del Estado de Nueva Le6n . . . (second edition, Monter-
rey, 1885), II, 727-728: quoting Jos6 Angel Benavides, Hechos histor-
icos (probably a manuscript history). David Alberto Cossio, Historia
de Nueva Le6n (Monterrey, 1924-1925), V, 17. Trelles, Jos6 Alvarez
de Toledo, 27-30, 131. Vito Alessio Robles, La Primera Imprenta en
Coahuila (Mexico, 1932), 41-43. These secondary accounts are, with
the exception of Hechos historicos, which may have been contemporary,
seemingly based upon Alaman's history and Gutierrez's Breve Apologia.
Trelles may have used independent Cuban sources.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 39, July 1935 - April, 1936, periodical, 1936; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101095/m1/99/: accessed March 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.