The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939 Page: 9
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Th e Origin of General Mina's Invasion of Mexico
efforts to win the king's pardon. Toledo, who had suffered defeat
at the Medina River, in Texas, in August, 1813, while in com-
mand of the Gutierrez-Magee expedition, was tired of being a
filibuster. Since his escape from the Medina he had participated
in various efforts to co-operate with the Mexican insurgents. The
failure of his plans caused him to seek the royal pardon. Onis
gave him the task of disrupting Mina's expedition. Toledo began
by attempting to take command of the martial excursion as a
Mexican general, and when Mina refused to give way, the Spanish
spy began to organize an expedition on his own account.37 Such
an enterprise might be expected to attract some of Mina's fol-
lowers, but at the end of August some two hundred French and
American officers were embarking on the Caledonia at Baltimore
and four other armed ships were prepared to sail.38 Onis entered
a protest with the Department of State which refused to see in
Mina's preparations anything more than commercial intentions
and would not interfere.39 American officials might pretend what
best suited their policy, but Onis was convinced that Mina intended
to join Aury's squadron in the Gulf, land at Boquilla, arm the
natives and the Indians, join forces with Victoria, and attack
Mexican ports with the hope of causing a general uprising. Mina,
he believed, hoped to proclaim himself Emperor of Mexico, and
was already assuming the "airs" of that position. Colonel Young
was mainly responsible for "seducing . . . a number of young
men of the first families who will embark . . . and who in their
enthusiasm expect to make rapid and brilliant fortunes." All of
this military activity was carried on in plain sight of authorities
in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, but they refused to
act on Onis's protests.40
37Mlher's Declaration, October 6, 1817, in I-Iernandez, Documentos, VI, 807.
380nis to the Captain-General, Philadelphia, August 21, 1816, AGI PC,
39Robinson, Memoirs, 1, 96-97.
4oOnis to the Captain-General, Philadelphia, August 28, 1816, AGN ND,
I, f. 249. Guilford Dudley Young was a native of Connecticut. In 1812 he
was a major in the New York volunteers; on February 20, 1815, he was
commissioned a major in the 29th infantry, and on April 12 he became a
lieutenant colonel. An honorable discharge terminated his regular army
career on June 15, 1815 (Francis Bernard Heitman, Ilistorical Register
and Dictionary of the Unvited States Army-Washington, 1903-I, 1067).
Heitman's statement that Young was killed in August, 1818, in Miranda's
Mexican expedition is obviously an error. He was killed on August 15,
1817 (Webb, "Account of Mina's Expedition," AGI PE AM, leg. 14).
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939, periodical, 1939; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101107/m1/17/: accessed March 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.