The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939 Page: 159
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History of Hawikuh, New Mexico, one of the so-called Seven Cities
of Cibola. By Frederick Webb Hodge. (Los Angeles:
Ward Ritchie Press, 1937. Pp. xviii, 155.)
In this work the history of Hawikuh, one of the ancient pueblos
of the Zufii tribe of western New Mexico, is traced from the earliest
reports received by the Spaniards, about 1529, concerning its exist-
ence until its abandonment at the time of the general Pueblo
Indian rebellion of 1680. The author identifies (p. 22) Hawikuh
as "the first and only pueblo of Zufii" which the well-known Fray
Marcos de Niza in 1539 viewed from a distance after the negro
slave, Estevan, who had accompanied him, had been the first to
discover and enter it (p. 27) and had been killed there. Equally
positive is the author's identification of Hawikuh as "the first of
the 'cities of Cibola'" which Coronado occupied after a so-called
battle on July 7, 1540 (pp. 33-46). In identifying Hawikuh in
connection with the explorations of Niza and Coronado and in
a description of the pueblos of Cibola-Zufii (pp. 47-58) the author
relies for evidence upon extensive contemporary source materials,
some of which he prints in the form of quotations.
Nearly forty years of Spanish inactivity followed the Coronado
expedition, but interest was revived in New Mexico in the last
quarter of the sixteenth century. In connection with the Rodriguez
Chamuscado expedition of 1581-'82, the author identifies Hawikuh
as the fourth Zufii pueblo, or "the last down the valley" which this
expedition visited (p. 60). In discussing the Espejo expedition
of 1582-'83 no identification of Hawikuh is made except as one
of the six pueblos of the Zufii province and the one from which
Espejo left to explore the Hopi country on April 7, 1583 (pp.
Conquest and colonization of New Mexico began with the Ofiate
expedition of 1598, and, in connection with Ofiate's visit to the
Zuiii provinces, Hawikuh is identified, through reliance on quota-
tions from contemporary sources, as the pueblo in which on Novem-
ber 9, 1598, the act of Obediencia y vasallaje . . . del Provincia
de Zuni was drawn up. Ofiate assigned the ministration of Zufii
to a missionary, "but this was little more than a formality" (p. 78),
and it was not until 1629 that a mission was founded among the
Zufiis. The author, relying on Father Perea's Segunda Relaci6n,
identifies Hawikuh as "the greatest of the Zufii pueblos, and 'head
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939, periodical, 1939; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101107/m1/173/?rotate=270: accessed March 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.