The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939 Page: 161
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that power either for good or evil, and all the concepts and beliefs
associated with those practices" (p. 10). Dr. Park recognizes the
impossibility of definitely categorizing the shaman's activities, or
his position in cultures generally. He points out that the dis-
tinction between priest and shaman is but one of degree and
that shamans may occasionally exercise certain priestly functions
Despite the author's modest assertions that this part is but a
"skeletonized version of Paviotso practices and beliefs" (p. 11),
he presents a relatively complete and thorough analysis, taking
up various elements of the shamanistic complex and discussing
each in detail. When it is remembered that shamanistic perform-
ances constitute almost the entire ceremonial life of the Paviotso,
this study is of more importance than might at first appear. Not
only does it add to our ethnographic data of this region, but it is
important since it gives a better understanding of the shaman in
a society to which the origin of both the 1870 and 1890 Ghost
Dance movements are traced.
In the second part of this volume, the distribution of the elements
making up the shamanistic complex is traced among the neigh-
boring tribes of the Great Basin, the Plateau, California, and several
tribes of the non-pueblo Southwest. With the Paviotso as a focus,
similarities and differences are considered, and cultural relation-
ships suggested. Since geographical distributions have long had a
prominent place in historical reconstructions, this section is of
particular interest from a theoretical point of view. If for no
other reason, this volume is significant for the cautious considera-
tion given this problem in the few introductory (1-8) and con-
cluding 148-158) pages.
Because of his very careful, cautious, and even conservative
analysis, Dr. Park's conclusions may be disappointing to some. He
makes no attempt to postulate conditions of diffusion and assimi-
lation; nor does he make any specific historical reconstructions.
He does, however, clarify as far as is possible the position of the
Paviotso. In so doing he questions the present culture areas of
western North America as well as several suggested realignments.
One criticism of this otherwise excellent report comes to mind:
the entire discussion of Paviotso relationships with surrounding
areas might have been greatly clarified by the use of maps, such
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939, periodical, 1939; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101107/m1/175/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.