The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939 Page: 298
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
followers to rally their people to the new cause. He also outlined
a full program and declared "Retrenchment [in government ex-
penditures to be] the watchword of the day." The delegates drafted
a constitution and by-laws stating the purpose of the Order to be
the education of the farmers, and denying any intention of enter-
ing politics. The position that the Grange took here produced a
favorable reaction in a number of newspapers, especially among
the leaders of the established parties who had become alarmed at
its rapid growth.
Between January 19 and mid-April, 1874, with little effort on
the part of the deputies, the number of subordinate Granges in-
creased from fifty-five to over 300 and the membership from
15,000 to 20,000.3 During the middle seventies itinerant deputies
were carrying on an extensive expansion program in various parts
of the state and into the Indian Territory. Lecturing to the people
from the back of plow-mule or saddle-horse or from the bed of a
wagon, these missionaries were able to plant units at road crossings,
in river bottoms, and at the ends of almost impassable by-ways.
They installed officers, administered oaths to them, and instructed
the Patrons briefly in the unwritten work, but they were not always
careful to observe Master Lang's instructions to admit only farmers
and their wives and to avoid using abusive language against other
classes. Probably the most diligent worker was A. J. Rose, of
Salado, the Worthy Lecturer of the State Grange in 1876, who, with
only a change of raiment and the necessary Grange implements,
carried the philosophy of the new Order into the utmost corners
of South, Southeast, and Northeast Texas, the Indian Territory,
and the western frontier.4 Wherever he went, he observed that
the people were clamorous for anything that promised relief and
that "Their minds were at unrest from the unsettled state of things
brought about by the late war, notwithstanding eight years had
passed."' He urged the farmers to plant one-third less cotton than
they had planted the year before, and many of them promised to
diversify. In South Texas he discovered that the Patrons were
thinking and reading more, apparently beginning to realize the true
3Proceedings of Texas State Grange, 1874, pp. 2-3; Daily Democratic
Statesman (Austin), April 15 and 16, 1874.
4Proceedings of Texas State Grange, 1877, p. 13.
SRose to [Put] Darden, September 30, 1886, Rose Letter Book, in the
Archives of The University of Texas.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 42, July 1938 - April, 1939, periodical, 1939; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101107/m1/326/: accessed August 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.