The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940 Page: 349
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Gdmara on the Coronado Expedition
not yet conquered; and Fray Marcos of Nice and another Fran-
ciscan friar came to Culhuacan' in the year 1538.2 Fray Marcos
alone, as his companion fell ill, went ahead with guides and in-
terpreters, following the track of the sun [i. e., to the west] because
he was better received and in order not to draw away from the
sea,s and traveled in many days three hundred land leagues, until
he arrived at Cibola.4 He returned relating marvels about seven
cities of Cibola, and said that this land had no ending, and that
the further to the west it extended, the more it was populated
and was rich in gold, turquoises, and fleece-bearing cattle.
Fernando Cort6s and Don Antonio de Mendoza desired to ex-
plore and conquer that land of Cibola, each by himself and for
himself, Don Antonio as viceroy of New Spain, and Cortes as
captain-general and discoverer of the South Sea. They discussed
doing it jointly; but neither trusting the other, they quarreled,
and Cortes went to Spain, and Don Antonio sent out Francisco
Vazquez de Coronado, a native of Salamanca, with a goodly army
of Spaniards and Indians, and four hundred horses.
From Mexico to Culhuacan, which is more than two hundred
leagues, they were well supplied with provisions. From there to
Cibola, which they estimated at three hundred, they suffered want,
and on the road many Indians and some horses died of hunger.
They came upon very beautiful women, unclothed although flax
grows there.5 They underwent much cold weather, as it snows
much in those ranges. Arriving at Cibola, they required that the
pueblo receive them peaceably, as they did not come to do them
harm, but to bring them much good and advantage; and that
they should give them food, as they lacked it. They [the Indians]
replied that they did not wish to, since they [the Spaniards] came
1San Miguel de Culiacan, northernmost town in New Galicia, on the
San Lorenzo River in Sinaloa.
2The other friar's name was Honorato. They left Culiacan for the north
on March 7, 1539, guided by Esteban, a black slave who had been with
Alvar Nuilez Cabeza de Vaca in the first crossing of the continent, 1535-
sThis statement that Marcos traveled to the west and close to the sea in
journeying to Cibola caused mapmakers of the later sixteenth century to
place Coronado's discoveries on the northwest coast of America.
4Cfbola, the old name for the tribal range of the Zufli Indians, south
of Gallup, N. M.
$The Rfo Chiquito in western Arizona was christened the River of Flax
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940, periodical, 1940; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101111/m1/373/: accessed November 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.