The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940 Page: 439
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Juan de Ugalde and Picax-Ande Ins-tinsle
chief, are well equipped with guns, arrows, bows, lances,
shields, and leather armor. They are brave warriors, as they
have shown in the many battles fought against the warlike
Comanche nation, and in spite of the latter they remain in
those lands close to the Comanche establishments without
having thought of abandoning them, regardless of the blows
they have received; nor do they ask peace at our presidios.
Therefore, in order to fulfill my desire to give credit to the
armies of the King, and to increase my own prestige, I de-
cided on that journey for our seventh mariscada.2
On the morning of the 9th of June, 1787, after having selected
a contingent of 216 soldiers, three officers, the chaplain, a sur-
geon, five Lipanes, four Mescaleros, including Chief Juan (Quijie-
qusya), and two old Indian women as guides, the new mariscada
One of the old women was guiding Ugalde for the fourth time,
having been taken prisoner by him in November, 1781, on his
second expedition while governor of Coahuila. She was almost
an "institution," in reality the only trustworthy "map" at the
disposal of the comandante. Several sarcastic references had
been made by him as to the utter unreliability of the few charts
in existence that pretended to picture the vast wilderness of
mountain and desert.
Transporting their goods across the river on rafts constructed
from barrels, they set forth toward the north from their encamp-
ment on the Puerco, probably somewhere between Lake Toyah
and the Salt Crossing. The first day of travel was over a dry,
sandy waste, covered with scrub oak not over a yard high. For
nine days the march was continued until the headwaters of the
Rio Colorado were attained, either Mustang Draw or Sulphur
Spring Creek, the probabilities being in favor of the former, since
no mention was made of having crossed it. After the first day
plenty of water and good pasturage had been found.
In his diary Ugalde made the following entry: "Having gone
nearly 100 leagues to the north over great plains, in the nine
days since leaving camp, I found the headwaters of the Colo-
rado River. . . ." In reality the leagues must have been short
2"Diary of the First General Campaign of Juan de Ugalde," January to
August, 1787. Provincias Internas, vol. 112, Archivo General y Ptiblico,
Mexico; hereafter designated by the abbreviation A. G. M.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940, periodical, 1940; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101111/m1/475/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.