The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940 Page: 65
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The Parrilla Expedition to the Red River
were under the French banner. The exact knowledge displayed
by the French in their letters showed that their traders had been
among the Taovayos after the fort had been completed and
possibly had given the Indians instruction in the building of it.26
Although it had been planned to start the expedition in June,
Parrilla was still in San Antonio in August. He then gave up
hope of receiving any more soldiers and, being pressed for time
enough to complete the campaign before the approach of cold
weather, left for San Saba. At that place the final organization
of the force was made and the little army set out.
It bore little resemblance to our conception of a military expe-
dition. Even the presidials were more vaqueros than soldiers. The
militia consisted of "cowboys, tailors, laborers, cigar-dealers, hat-
ters, peons from the mines, and persons of similar occupations,
who cannot be instructed."27 All these soldiers, together with the
Tlascalan Indians, were armed with muskets and swords. Many
of them carried additional weapons; blunderbusses, knives, or
In addition to these troops there were the mission Indians and
a small body of Apaches. They were armed with native weapons,
chiefly bows and arrows. Besides the fighting force there was a
pack train of about two hundred mules. Not only was each soldier
mounted but, as a rule, each had two spare mounts. One can
imagine the motley appearance of the troop as it marched league
after league over the dusty plains of Texas: Spaniards, mestizos
(both soldiers and cargadores), Tlascaltecos who were descendants
of the allies of Cortez, mission Indians in the process of being
civilized, savage Apaches, pack train, horse herd, and cattle herd.
Altogether there were more than five hundred men and over
sixteen hundred head of horses, mules, and cattle.
No Spanish expedition would be complete without its friars.
This one had two, the Franciscan Fathers Acayos and Pelaez.
26Auditor to viceroy, Mar. 25, 1759, Aumilio, p. 371. Parrilla to viceroy,
July 15, 1759, Auxilio, p. 222. Zedano to [Martos], . . . , Ausilio, p. 198.
In this paper the terms Taovayos and Wichitas are used indiscriminately.
See Hodge's Handbook.
27Officers, petition, Oct. 7, 1759, Campaga, pp. 6-7.
28See references given in note 22.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940, periodical, 1940; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101111/m1/73/: accessed July 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.