The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947 Page: 190
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
same band. Geographically the Apache can be divided into two
general groups, one living east of the Rio Grande and the other
living west. The western group included the Navaho in
the northwestern part of present-day New Mexico and north-
eastern Arizona, several bands known collectively as the western
Apache in the mountainous country of eastern and central Ari-
zona, the Chiricahua in southeastern Arizona, and the Gila
Apache in southwestern New Mexico. In northern New Mexico
the Jicarilla afforded a tenuous link between the Navaho and
the Apache of the plains country; the Mescalero in the south
served the same purpose, with even greater emphasis, for the
plains Apache and the western group. For the purpose of this
paper the eastern group is of chief concern.4
The eastern Apache have been known by a variety of names.
They were probably encountered by the earliest Spanish ex-
plorers of the Southwest. When Coronado moved eastward from
the upper Rio Grande to the Staked Plains, Castafieda wrote that
the expedition "came to some rancherias of a nomadic people,
called Querechos around there. ... They are gentle people, not
cruel, and are faithful in their friendship,"5 a reputation that
they did not live up to as the Spanish later came to realize. In
fact they already had enemies, as Coronado stated, who "belong
to another nation of people called the Teyas."6
The Querechos, or Apache, subsisted on buffalo and used dogs
for transportation. They were encountered in 1582 in the Pecos
Valley by members of the Espejo Expedition, who "found a
rancheria of naked Indians of a different nation from those they
4For a general account of the western Apache and Chiricahua see
Frank C. Lockwood, The Apache Indians (New York, 1938) and Ogle,
Federal Control of the Western Apaches, 1848-1886.
5George P. Hammond and Agapito Rey (eds.), Narratives of the
Coronado Expedition, 1540-1542 (Albuquerque, 1940), 235, 261. See Jara-
millo's statement, ibid., 300, and Coronado's, ibid., 186, and the further
statement, "These Querechos were the plains Apache," ibid., 235. Note that
Harrington writes "probably." Harrington, "Southern Peripheral
Athapaskawan Origins," Essays in Historical Anthropology, 512.
6Hammond and Rey (eds.), Narrative of the Coronado Expedition, -186.
Hammond and Rey (p. 239) identify the Teyas with the Tejas or Texas
Indians encountered by the Spanish in Central Texas, but Harrington
states that Teya is the Pecos-Jemez Indian name for eastern Apache (or
Lipanan, who will be mentioned later in detail). Harrington, "Southern
Peripheral Athapaskawan Origins," Essays in Historical Antropology, 512.
Since the Teyas raided the Pueblo Indians (Hammond and Rey, Narra-
tives of the Coronado Expedition, 258), they were probably plains Indians
rather than the Texas Indians in the opinion of the writer; this interpre-
tation was recently confirmed by Herbert E. Bolton in conversation. He
states that the Teyas of the plains and the Tejas of Texas were separate
and distinct groups.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947, periodical, 1947; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101117/m1/233/: accessed June 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.