The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947 Page: 63
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The Annexation of Texas
In effect, he wanted assurance that a treaty of annexation would
be ratified by the Senate and, in the meantime, that the Presi-
dent of the United States would undertake to protect Texas
from an invasion. They were difficult assurances for Tyler
X. TREATY NEGOTIATIONS
When Van Zandt delivered President Houston's questions to
Upshur, the American secretary of state, he was told that the
Senate would certainly ratify a treaty of annexation, but he
did not answer the demand for protection of Texas while the
treaty was pending. The overzealous American minister at
Galveston assured Anson Jones that the United States would
protect Texas, but later he had to admit that he spoke without
authority. As it turned out, the Senate rejected the treaty,
but Upshur may have thought that he had enough votes pledged
to ratify. He was killed in an accident while the negotiations
were in progress, and a roster of the Senate was found among
his papers on which he had written against each name "for"
or "against." Presumably, this was a forecast of the vote on
As a matter of fact, President Houston had little apprehen-
sion of an invasion by Mexico and dropped temporarily the
demand for a pledge of protection. He sent J. Pinckney Hen-
derson to Washington to assist Van Zandt, and they had agreed
substantially upon the terms of a treaty when Upshur was
killed. A month intervened in which nothing was done; then
President Tyler induced John C. Calhoun to take the vacant
cabinet post. Calhoun accepted because he believed that he
might be able to assure and hasten annexation. The Texans
now renewed the demand for protection, and Calhoun probably
had an influence in inducing the President to go as far as his
constitutional powers permitted. Only Congress could declare
war, but he could order the army and the navy to positions that
might deter Mexico from an invasion. On April 11, 1844, Cal-
houn told Van Zandt and Henderson that President Tyler had
ordered a naval force to the Gulf and the army to the south-
western frontier. The next day the treaty was signed.
The treaty declared that Texas and the United States desired
annexation to further their mutual security and prosperity.
Texas ceded its public land and public property, such as naval
and military equipment, and the right to levy tariff duties;
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947, periodical, 1947; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101117/m1/79/: accessed July 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.