The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950 Page: 118
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
(those of mixed Spanish and Indian blood) might have equal
rights, privileges, and positions as the ruling class, the gachupines
(those born in Spain). Iturbide was unable to defeat the insur-
gent leader; so on February 24, 1821, he issued the Plan of Iguala
which Guerrero immediately accepted.
The Plan of Iguala was a compromise in that its heart and
soul was the "Three Guarantees," namely: Religion, to satisfy
the reactionary clergy; Independence, which was the goal of both
factions; and Union, or Equality, which satisfied the creole and
mestizo masses. The movement became national in scope and the
"Army of the Three Guarantees" (Trigarante) grew day by
day as many of the Spanish expeditionary troops joined it. By
August, 1821, most of Mexico was in the hands of the Trigarante
Army; and, since independence was an accomplished fact, the
new "superior political chief," Juan O'Donoj, signed the so-
called Treaty of C6rdoba which recognized the independence of
the Mexican Empire. On September 27, 1821, the Trigarante
Army led by "El Libertador," Iturbide, entered the capital and
the following day the new imperial government began to con-
sider the great problems which faced the empire. One of the
most vital was the province of Texas.
During the revolutionary period, 1810-1821, the independence
of Texas was proclaimed on two different occasions: by Bernardo
Gutidrrez in 1813, and by James Long in 1819. Both of these
efforts were short-lived but it is significant that the invading
forces included many Anglo-Americans who became acquainted
with the rich possibilities and weak defenses of this province.
Several other important events occurred in Texas during this
period. One of these was a successful revolt at Bexar by Juan
Bautista Casas in support of the Hidalgo movement of 1811,
which was quickly suppressed. Another effort was the expedition
of the Spaniard, Francisco Xavier Mina, who invaded Nuevo
Santander from Texas in 1817. Finally the famous pirate, Jean
Lafitte, established his headquarters on Galveston Island and in
1819 was appointed governor of that island by the republican
party of Mexico, but in 1821 he was compelled by the United
States Government to abandon it.2
2Henderson K. Yoakum, A History of Texas, I (New York, 1856), o202-2o. For
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950, periodical, 1950; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101126/m1/166/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.