The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950 Page: 505
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growing anti-American sentiments and his loneliness. But I do
believe that the reactions of Duus to American pioneering con-
ditions were the natural reactions of most well-educated immi-
grants, who could not or would not readily adjust themselves.
Therefore, let us examine the Duus letters a little more closely
for the causes of his discontent with Waupaca, Wisconsin. He
found that the American god was money (February 3, 1856)
and that there was little honesty and authority (ibid.). The
weather was cold and windy (March 6, 1856; March io, 1856;
February 11, 1857), or otherwise it was pouring rain (May 26,
1856; February 13, 1857). Though he was able to recognize the
beautiful site of Madison, "one of the most beautiful on earth"
upon his travels (September 1, 1856), witness the progress of
the town of Waupaca, see improvements made in communica-
tions (September 8, 1857), and make money on land specula-
tion (July 8, 1856), he was not happy in America. He saw the
effects of hardships upon the health of his good and self-sacri-
ficing wife (May 14, I858), who died in 1859. He was sure that
"the scum of humanity" were working on the Wisconsin and
Mississippi rivers as logrollers (May 28, 1856). He felt that he
was a stranger living in a country with foreign customs, a for-
eign language and government (May 8, 1856).
Duus disliked American clothes and shoes, and thought Amer-
icans looked ragged. They had no manners of greater refinement
and "belching at the table" was "a daily practice" (December 4,
1856). He had to preach in no less than five different places in
Waupaca Parish, and hardly ever did he preach in a consecrated
church building (February 8, 1857) . The American wine was bad
(February i 1, 1856-57), and it was almost impossible to secure a
capable maid (June 15, 1857). Waupaca was an out-of-the-way
place and he did not have the companionship of "other brothers."
The Panic of 1857 hit him and the farmers hard, and money
became extremely scarce (October 14, 1857) . "Frozen ink" and
toothache added to his misery. The Americans did not know the
Lord's prayer. Mosquitoes were bothersome; yet, he thought of
Norway only with reluctance, for he believed that he was doing
an important work, and he might well have returned to Norway
earlier, if this thought had not been stronger.
O. FRITIOF ANDER
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950, periodical, 1950; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101126/m1/611/: accessed April 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.