The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950 Page: 47
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Texas Congressional Leaders, 1913-1917
came during the first Wilson administration on the constitutional
Most of the Texas members were like the average southern
congressman in supporting the status quo with respect to the
Negro issue and in expressing strong disapproval of foreign im-
migration. James P. Buchanan was the only Texas representative
who voted against the immigration exclusion bill in 1913,47 while
neither Culberson nor Sheppard opposed it in the Senate.48
Martin Dies, the fire-eating reactionary from Texas, contributed
to the repassage of the exclusion bill over Wilson's veto in 1916.40
It seems to be an American tradition for members of the party
in office to receive the appellation of "patronage seekers." The
first administration of Woodrow Wilson was no exception.
George F. Burgess, member of the House Rivers and Harbors
Committee, and John N. Garner were frequently indicted as
pork grabbers. In 1916 an article appeared in a leading periodical
which quoted Garner as saying that "Now we Democrats are in
charge of the House and I'll tell you right now every time one
of those yankees gets a ham I'm going to do my best to get a
hog."60 In contrast, sharp-tongued and plain-spoken Oscar Calla-
way of Texas was an "almost violent anti-pork barrelist."" He
was an expert in the art of denunciation, having been known to
have termed administration bills as extravagant, and going so far
as to laud the Republican minority leader, James R. Mann, for
It is an interesting fact that while Texas was one of the leading
46Culberson opposed this bill. Congressional Record, 64th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1o66.
47Only six southerners voted in the negative. Congressional Record, 63rd Cong.,
and Sess., 2911. Buchanan, Burgess, Garner, and Hardy, however, later voted to
sustain Wilson's veto. Ibid., 63rd Cong., 3rd Sess., 3077-3078.
49See William Gellermann, Martin Dies, 16-28, for a sketch of Martin Dies,
Senior. In the debate in 1914 on a bill to promote efficiency in the Public Health
Service, Dies spoke of the specter of Socialism. He said that he "could use five
hours in calling upon you to rally round the flag of individualism, round the flag
of the old Republicanism and the old Democracy of this country, as against this
socialism which is leading the people into the fallacy of Government ownership."
Congressional Record, 63rd Cong., 3rd Sess., 2414-2415.
50Burton Jesse Hendrick, "Shall We Have Responsible Government?" World's
Work, XXXI. (January, 1916), 275-
MSee for example Congressional Record, 63rd Cong., 3rd Sess., 1845, 1915-1916.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950, periodical, 1950; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101126/m1/65/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.