The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 56, July 1952 - April, 1953 Page: 14
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
ment of free labor is the want of patience on the part of the southern
people. They are too ready, and almost eager, to pronounce it a
failure. In their sudden liberation from slavery, the freed people are,
I will admit, too often restless, shiftless, and suspicious of all restraint,
but ... [they] only need kindness, patience, education, and good faith
In spite of his understanding and faith in his task, Kiddoo
was to have little time to accomplish anything, for even as he
took charge in April, 1866, reorganization was in the offing. In
order to consolidate the jurisdiction of the bureau and the
military Kiddoo was relieved on January 24, 1867, and the affairs
of the bureau in Texas were placed under the supervision of
Brevet Major General Charles Griffin with General J. J. Reyn-
olds as assistant commissioner.8
When Griffin arrived in Texas and set up headquarters in
Galveston, he found fourteen officers and fifteen civilians on
duty as sub-assistant commissioners. All, with one exception, were
in the southern part of the state and in no case over 18o miles
from the Gulf, so that not over one-third of the state and not
over one-half of the population had been reached by the bureau.
Troops were immediately distributed, and the state was divided
(May, 1867) into fifty-seven sub-districts in charge of sixty-nine
agents, thirty-eight officers, and thirty-one civilians so stationed
as to extend protection to the most distant areas of the state."4
Griffin reversed the policy of General Kiddoo and abolished all
free schools, but on March 1, 1867, he reduced tuition rates. A
graduated system was adopted. The rate was to be fifty cents for
one in a family, seventy-five cents for two, and one dollar for
an entire family regardless of numbers. Orphans and children
of widows were to be admitted free of charge. Furthermore,
teachers employed at the time and not receiving aid from a
benevolent order were to be paid a monthly sum of $40 from
the treasury of the bureau."
32Kiddoo to Howard, October, 1866, in Senate Executive Documents, 39th Con-
gress, 2d Session (Series No. 1276), Document No. 6, p. 157.
88Howard to U. S. Grant, November 1, 1867, in House Executive Documents,
40th Congress, 2d Session (Series No. 1324), Document No. 1, p. 683.
s4Wheelock to Alvord, Galveston, February 2o, 1867 (MS., in Bureau of Refugees
, National Archives) .
85J. T. Kirkman to Charles Griffin (broadside), February 7, 1867 (MS., in Bureau
of Refugees .. , National Archives).
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 56, July 1952 - April, 1953, periodical, 1953; Austin, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101145/m1/32/: accessed April 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.