The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 56, July 1952 - April, 1953 Page: 52
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
traceable, no doubt, to continuous inbreeding.3 Stephen F. Austin
drew the bulk of his colonists from the southern states. The
southerners brought their inferior "mealy-nosed" cattle with
them. The crossing of these cattle with the wild, Spanish cattle
in all probability produced the Longhorn that was later to fur-
row the trails that spread over the Central Plains and the Rocky
Mountain West which was to be designated the Cattle Kingdom.
As early as 1848 Texas cattle were driven northward to Mis-
souri. The drives continued until the Civil War closed the north-
ern outlet.4 With the close of the war in 1865 three factors oper-
ated to open again the northern markets for Texas cattle. For a
number of years a decline in cattle production had been apparent
in the northeastern states.5 The United States Department of
Agriculture reported a decline of 7 per cent in the cattle pop-
ulation of the northern states between 186o and 1866.0 There
was not enough beef being grown in the North to feed the pop-
ulation. A second factor involved industrial change. Cities had
sprung up and their industrial population demanded meat. The
third contributing element was the stocking of the Great West
with cattle, since enterprising stockmen had learned that the
West would support cattle in abundance.
From a possible fifty thousand Texas cattle that crossed Red
River at Preston in 1854,7 the numbers increased annually. In
1866, which marked a greatly accelerated cattle trade, an esti-
mated 26o,ooo Texas Longhorns trudged northward along the
trails." The year 1873 saw 156,990 native Texas cattle delivered
at the Union Stockyard in Chicago, which represented only one
of six marketing centers for Longhorns." The Kansas City Board
of Development in 1884 estimated that 3,901,147 Texas cattle
had been driven to northern markets and to the ranching areas
8Robert Jennings, The Horse and Other Livestock (Philadelphia, 186o), 21.
4Joseph G. McCoy, Cattle Trade of the West and Southwest (Glendale, 1940), 27.
5Love, "Cattle Industry," Quarterly, XIX, 383.
6House Executive Documents, g9th Congress, 1st Session (Series No. 1266), Docu-
ment No. 136, p. 69.
7Texas State Gazette (Austin), August 5, 1854.
sMcCoy, Cattle Trade, 50.
9Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 1874 (Washington,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 56, July 1952 - April, 1953, periodical, 1953; Austin, Texas. (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101145/m1/70/: accessed April 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.