The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 57, July 1953 - April, 1954 Page: 408
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
of the gun and the horse from opposite borders of the Plains area
led to the development of two different patterns of fighting: the
Post-horse-Pre-gun pattern developing in the Southwestern Plains
culture center and spreading outward over most of the Plains;
and the Post-gun-Pre-horse pattern spreading from the North-
eastern Forest Area. These eventually merged by the end of the
eighteenth century to form the Horse and Gun pattern of the
"Typical" Plains Indians of historic times.
This was not a simple or continuing process, but one of change
and difference, depending not so much on the cultural con-
figuration of each tribe, as upon the external influences such as
the needs and culture content of the European invader, as well as
environmental factors. This is something of a departure from
the culture pattern concept, both as it has been applied in general
and in the Plains area in particular, for Secoy points out that
the military technique pattern of any one culture was largely
formed in response to external influences from other cultures in
the spheres of war and trade, and not as a result of an internal
In the rapid ferment of culture growth as a result of European
contact, actual basic inventions were rare, but there were many
improving inventions, borrowings, recombinations of previously
existing elements, and shifts in cultural emphasis. Indeed a new
culture was produced upon which the late period erected the
characteristic ceremonial, organizational, and decorative super-
structure of the so-called "Typical" Plains tribes.
This study, then, employs a functional-historic approach with
emphasis upon one important aspect (military technique pattern)
of these dynamic peoples of the Plains.
One might object to a few minor points, such as the use of
"Plains Apache." This is somewhat confusing for during the nine-
teenth century and in most of the literature the Kiowa-Apache
are the "Plains" Apache. From the text it is obvious that Secoy
refers to the Jicarilla, Mescalero, and Lipan, which are usually
known as southwestern tribes. Only once (page 87) does he call
them "eastern Apache." It would have made for greater clarity
had he named his so-called Plains Apache or simply called them
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 57, July 1953 - April, 1954, periodical, 1954; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101152/m1/489/: accessed July 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.