The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 58, July 1954 - April, 1955 Page: 179
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to those in other parts of the United States. Studies on the New
South have dealt too exclusively either with the white population
or with the Negro minority who in some accounts seem hardly
to be Southerners; and although each generation has acknowl-
edged the existence of the "Negro problem," few historians have
given due consideration to the Negro freeman since 1865 com-
parable to the study of the Negro slave of ante-bellum days.
While Mr. Simkins may be criticized for shaping his narrative
within the frame of reference of his central theme with an im-
plied indictment of the past as viewed from the mid-twentieth
century, such criticism arises chiefly from differences in subjec-
tive values rather than from any fault that can be found with the
author's use of the diverse historical sources available. Certainly
he expresses no sectional bias in his factual account and inter-
pretation of inter-racial developments. "That reputed Utopia,
the Old South," he asserts, was responsible for the Negro's igno-
rance and incompetence in the post-bellum period; but he also
points out: "In counseling no violence, Lincoln laid down [in
the Emancipation Proclamation] a pattern of conduct for the
Negro that ... [he] must never be aggressive and always must
depend on his white friends for social uplift"; Andrew Johnson
"evaded the Negro suffrage problem, leaving the solution of all
race questions to ex-Confederates"; and "those Negroes who held
important offices were neither worse nor better than their carpet-
bag and scalawag compeers," for the South had no monopoly of
corruption. Mr. Simkins regards Reconstruction as "a definite
step forward in the Americanization, not Africanization, of the
blacks" who "were too genuine Southerners to be interested in
the class struggle"; yet political equality was never followed by
social equality, then or since, in North or South. And when Re-
construction was succeeded by Bourbon rule, elimination of the
Negro voter was punishment for "loyalty to a Republican party
unable or unwilling to protect him in the exercise of constitu-
tional rights" which were also denied him by the Supreme Court.
The foregoing quotations, indicative of the results of the au-
thor's own research as well as the fruit of other recent scholarship
which he has so forcefully interpreted, are not meant to suggest
that he has not allotted a larger portion of his History to the life
and labor of white Southerners. The reader will find a detailed
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 58, July 1954 - April, 1955, periodical, 1955; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101158/m1/200/: accessed May 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.