The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956 Page: 137
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that followed, certain names kept reappearing. The pile of notes
grew until the compiler decided to put them together and let
them tell their own story.
The history of the first settlers reveals details of Spanish days
not obtainable from any other source. Coronado and his men left
no permanent trace in the land of the Pueblos. But before the
end of the sixteenth century came Ofiate, who undertook the
pacification of the land. With him came soldiers and the first
families that settled permanently. Out of some two hundred
names listed in the records of the Ofiate expedition, a scant forty
established themselves permanently in the vast area from El Paso,
Texas, to Taos, New Mexico. Between 161o and 168o a few addi-
tional officers and soldiers came, who stayed and married into the
original forty families. Three years before the great revolt of 168o
the viceroy allowed fifty convicts to go to New Mexico and make
a new start in the distant province. The hardships of the frontier
proved too much. Only two remained and founded families, the
others chose to escape to the riotous life of the more adventurous
mining towns of Chihuahua and Zacatecas.
The Pueblo revolt of i68o drove all Spaniards out of New
Mexico, forcing them to retreat to El Paso, where they remained
until 1693. Some returned that year with Vargas and his soldiers
and the pioneer families recruited in Mexico City and the Valley
of Mexico, who had been joined on the way by a few from
Zacatecas and Sombrerete. The new settlers represented a second
generation of Spaniards which fused with the remnants of the
seventeenth century settlers. For almost another century the
European population remained largely stationary, being joined
now and then by settlers from Canada and the United States.
This study reveals that the early colonists were neither noble
knights nor simple peons or convicts, but just average, honest,
ambitious, determined settlers of the same stock found on all
frontiers, solid pastoral and agricultural folk with a sprinkling
After 182o the stream of immigration increased steadily and be-
came a flood after 1848. They came from Canada, United States,
England, Ireland, Scotland, France, and Germany and married
into the old families. Two world wars have since carried the de-
scendants to the four corners of the world. Coronado's children
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956, periodical, 1956; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101162/m1/155/: accessed April 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.