The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956 Page: 492
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
mission. It was rebuilt in 1721 by the Marquis de Aguayo as an
important part of his ambitious program of mission building
Two generations later, in 1763, fear of the French again lifted
when Louisiana was ceded to Spain as a result of the French and
Indian War. So in 1772 all settlers in East Texas, including Nacog-
doches, were ordered to San Antonio and the mission was again
The men and women of Nacogdoches, many of whom had been
born there and were raising families of their own, were reluctant
to leave East Texas. Leader of these "displaced persons" who were
given their choice of San Antonio or the Rio Grande Valley as
their new home, was Gil Antonio Ybarbo.
Gil Ybarbo immediately began petitioning the Spanish author-
ities to allow the settlers to return to their East Texas homes.
In 1774 they were permitted to go as far east as the Trinity
River where they established a temporary town. Five years later
this settlement was abandoned and Ybarbo and his compatriots
returned to their former home to rebuild the city of Nacogdoches
in 1779. This date is regarded as the permanent founding of
The Old Stone Fort, now rebuilt on the grounds of Stephen F.
Austin State Teachers College, was erected at this time to serve as
storehouse and fort. Ybarbo, appointed lieutenant governor and
captain of militia, was the chief magistrate in the area, but he
fell into some disfavor when it was suspected, but never proved,
that he was violating the smuggling laws he was supposed to be
enforcing. He was exiled a few years to his native Louisiana,
but was later allowed to return. In 18o9, Gil Antonio Ybarbo,
founder of modern Nacogdoches, died at his home on the banks
of the Attoyac River, a few miles from the city of which he
Throughout its history, Nacogdoches has been prominently
identified with virtually every significant movement for freedom
and in every fight against oppression in Texas.
In 800oo, during the height of the activities of the anti-royalist
filibusters, Nacogdoches was headquarters for Antonio Leal, re-
puted to be a fellow-conspirator with Philip Nolan to extend the
new American Republic into royal Spanish lands. When similar
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956, periodical, 1956; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101162/m1/520/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.