The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956 Page: 49
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Notes and Documents
For the already-stated reasons one cannot figure them in
accordance with square leagues.
Indian Tribes: the Nations are known as Carancahuaces, Curanes,
Tancahues, Bidais, Cocoan, Orcoguisac, Nacogdochitas, Ays,
Aynais, Nabeidachos, Quitseis, Huichitas, Tahuayas, Tahua-
cana, and Comancha. By nature, most of these tribes are
barbarous, nomadic, without discipline, manners, or civi-
Settlements: the Town of San Fernando de Austria or Presidio of
San Antonio de Bexar, the residence of the Governor; the
secularized Mission of San Antonio Valero, the [Missions]
of San Jose de Aguayo, San Juan Capistrano, and San Fran-
cisco de la Espada; the Presidio of La Bahia del Espiritu
Santo; the Mission of that name, that of Nuestra Sefiora del
Rosario, that of the Refugio; and the 'Town of Nacogdoches.
Rivers:12 the principal ones are the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos,
the Colorado, the Guadalupe, and the San Antonio. The
two first-named ones originate within the Province, run from
the Northwest to the Southeast, and empty themselves, at the
coast, in the Bay of San Bernardo.'s It is not known which
of our territories sees the rise of the two second-named ones,
but, running in almost the same direction, they fall into the
aforesaid Bay, and all of them together create a volume of
water which is, in floodtime, between twenty and fifty varas14
in depth and one hundred to three thousand, more or less, in
San Francisco, 1889), II, 2, cites a population estimate of about a ,ooo persons
living in Texas in 1805. This figure, however, apparently included the Indians of
l1For a discussion of the Indian groups of the Texas area, see Herbert Eugene
Bolton (ed.), Athanase de Mdzibres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1768-178o
(2 vols.; Cleveland, 1914), I, 17-28.
12According to Bonavi, the Consulado added "their names, where they rise,
where they empty themselves, and what volume of water is carried." "Relaciones," 92.
1aThe exact phrase was "Costa y Bahia de San Bernardo." It would seem that
the Spanish were using this term to designate a general coastal region rather than
an exact point on the coast, since the Sabine River empties itself into Sabine
Lake which flows through Sabine Pass to the Gulf while the Trinity descends to
the Gulf via the waters of Galveston Bay. For additional information see Charles
Wilson Hackett (ed.), Pichardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas
(4 vols.; Austin, 1931-1946), I, 850, 474.
14The vara, a Spanish unit of distance, was used in the Spanish and Mexican
surveys and land grants in Texas. One vara equals approximately thirty-three and
one-third inches; 5,645.4 square varas equal one acre; 1,go6.x varas equal one mile;
and 1,ooo,ooo square varas, which is one labor, equals approximately 177.1 acres.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 59, July 1955 - April, 1956, periodical, 1956; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101162/m1/61/: accessed May 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.