The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 60, July 1956 - April, 1957 Page: 45
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The Indigenous Indians of Lower Trinity Area of Texas 45
chips, arrow heads, scarce beads of many kinds, and drills for
beads. The mound at Caplen is in an area formerly occupied al-
most entirely by the Attacapa.
Blue and white trade beads found at Caplen indicate probable
trade from Louisiana. Red ochre lumps give evidence of trade
with the Assinai and Caddo to the north. These burials do not
accord with Karankawan burial sites near Corpus Christi, if
present available information about them is correct.25
During an interview with Dr. Krieger the writer was told of
other mounds along the Trinity itself, one near Anahuac and
another near Woodville. He stated that mounds that have been
opened have yielded up evidence of much older cultures than
the Attacapa or other recent tribal inhabitants of the Gulf Coast
region. Other burial sites have been excavated near Trinity Bay
in Chambers County which give further evidence of the past in
The cultural traits of the Attacapa Indians naturally had many
points of similarity with the cultural traits of the various Trinity
River tribes which, as has been pointed out, were related to the
Attacapa. Climate and local conditions invariably make for dif-
ferences in social customs and practices without erasing entirely
the traces of natural kinship. It is quite possible that some of
the descriptions that have been given as relating to the Attacapa
of the Gulf Coast may actually have been meant for the Orco-
quiza of the lower Trinity.
The Orcoquiza Indians lived near the mouth of the Trinity.
Spanish traders who visited the lower Trinity region in 1755
found four rancherias (villages) of Orcoquiza Indians, each
headed by a chief. Calzones Colorado's village was near the
mouth of the Trinity and was the site of a presidio and mission
during the period of Spanish occupation. Chief Cano's village
was on the San Jacinto River near the Arroyo Santa Rosa de
25A M.. Woolsey and J. E. Pearce, "Field Notes on the Archaeology of Southeast
Texas," typescript in files of Department of Anthropology, University of Texas,
26H. Perry Nowell and Alex D. Krieger, "The George C. Davis Site Cherokee
County, Texas," American Antiquity, XIV, No. 4, Part II, 8-14; Woolsey and Pearce,
"Field Notes on the Archaeology of Southeast Texas," Department of Anthropology,
University of Texas, Austin, 1932; Alex D. Krieger, University of Texas, interview
with the writer, July io, 1950o.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 60, July 1956 - April, 1957, periodical, 1957; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101163/m1/58/: accessed June 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.