The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 61, July 1957 - April, 1958 Page: 405
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Formation of Sibley's Brigade and March to New Mexico 405
just on the verge of launching an offensive when Sibley's timely
arrival thwarted the movement.
In the ensuing New Mexican campaign, the Army of New
Mexico would win the only two major battles, but the Confed-
erates would lose in the end. They would lose because they could
not overcome the barren and inhospitable nature of the land and
the dogged resistance of Colonel Edward R. S. Canby, the Fed-
eral commander. Other factors contributing to defeat were lack
of supplies and the inability to seize them from the Federals,
the arrival of Union reinforcements from Colorado, and the
destruction by a Federal detachment of some eighty wagons
loaded with irreplaceable supplies. The Texans found themselves
deep within a hostile country hundreds of miles from any possible
base of supply. What had begun as a glorious invasion came to an
end in a near disastrous rout.
The Confederate retreat resulted not only in the firm retention
of New Mexico by the Union, but also the abandonment of the
Territory of Arizona. While Sibley had been away to the north,
Baylor had inaugurated a campaign of extermination against
the hostile Indians. This policy was repugnant to Jefferson Davis,
so the colonel was subsequently removed from the governorship.
In 1863 Baylor became a member of the Confederate Congress
from Texas, and he continued to serve in that capacity for the
duration of the war.
Sibley made no effort to retain Arizona for several reasons. Of
primary importance was the fact that his campaign had as its goal
the seizure of California. Since the failure to take New Mexico
had rendered that objective impossible, it was purposeless to keep
an army in relatively unimportant Arizona. In addition the area
was stripped of supplies and another Federal force was on its
way from California to contest the Confederate occupation. Com-
pletely demoralized and disgusted with the country, Sibley's
troops were anxious to return East. The general had no recourse
but to march the thinned ranks of his army back to San Antonio.
This action left the frontier of West Texas undefended and al-
lowed Federal occupation as far east as Fort Davis.
Sibley's star had risen rapidly only to descend with equal
facility. From the end of this campaign to the conclusion of the
war, he was relegated to a subordinate position under Generals
Richard Taylor and E. Kirby Smith. Henry Hopkins Sibley had
gambled and lost.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 61, July 1957 - April, 1958, periodical, 1958; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101164/m1/487/: accessed July 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.