The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959 Page: 142
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
defeat,5 yet the Confederates won at Chickamauga with a 27 per
cent loss in killed, wounded, and missing, and the combined loss
of both sides was approximately 29 per cent. Such battles were
rather typical than exceptional. The Union loss at Gettysburg was
20 per cent and 23 per cent at Sharpsburg."
As the theoretical basis of the struggle grew from conflicting
doctrines on the nature of the American Union under the Con-
stitution of 1789, there was no universally accepted appellation
for the war. In the South, the title of "War for Southern Inde-
pendence" was at one time widely used. As the attempt at inde-
pendence culminated in frustration, however, the term is seldom
heard today. Immediately after the war, particularly in the acts of
Congress, the title of "war of the rebellion" was employed. Even-
tually "War between the States" and "Civil War" grew into use,
both carrying forward to some extent the conflicting concepts of
the nature of the union. More recently, however, the term "Civil
War" has been gaining universal recognition, perhaps because it
is shorter and handier, and the one generally used by Southerners
for most purposes except for "public declarations and for hair
splitting harangues with Yankees."'
The connotation of the term "Civil War" is that of a struggle
between two groups of people under the same sovereignty-a
federal union of indestructible states. "War between the States,"
on the other hand, obviously means a war between sovereignties.
The governmental theory suggested may be acceptable in victory
but is highly disastrous in defeat, as hereafter noticed.
Proceeding on the theory of a union of indestructible states,
President Andrew Johnson followed the presidential plan of
Reconstruction devised by Abraham Lincoln and appointed Brig-
adier General Andrew Jackson Hamilton of the United States
Army to the position of provisional governor of the state of Texas.
Although many carpetbaggers occupied subordinate positions,
Reconstruction in Texas remained primarily within the control of
Southerners such as Hamilton, a native Alabamian, who had
served Texas in the United States Congress before the war but
5G. F. R. Henderson, Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War (2 vols.;
London, 1898), II, 499.
OStreet, The Civil War, 8.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959, periodical, 1959; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/m1/184/: accessed November 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.