The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959 Page: 144
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
that is, the states formerly sovereign had become conquered
provinces, much the same as the North African sovereign city of
Carthage became a conquered province of the victorious Romans
after the Punic Wars. The bitter and violent struggle in Washing-
ton between the conflicting theories of governmental Recon-
struction for the Southern States culminated in the impeachment
of President Johnson, the details of which need not be repeated
except in so far as they relate to the Texas situation. From
March to July, 1867, both houses of Congress overrode the vetoes
of the President and passed three acts which effectively ended
presidential Reconstruction and set the stage for congressional
domination of the situation.'0 In effect, Congress declared that
"the governments then existing in the rebel states of Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama,
Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Arkansas were not legal state gov-
ernments; and that thereafter said governments, if continued,
were to be continued subject in all respects to the military com-
manders of the respective districts, and to the paramount author-
ity of Congress." Such states were divided into military districts
and made subject to the military authority of the United States.
District commanders were authorized, subject to the disapproval
of the General of the Army of the United States, to remove any
and all state and municipal officials from office and to designate
Major General Philip Sheridan was named military com-
mander of the Fifth District which was comprised of Louisiana
and Texas, and Major General Charles Griffin was placed in
charge of Texas. On July 3o, 1867, Sheridan removed J. W.
Throckmorton from office and designated E. M. Pease as provi-
sional governor. Shortly thereafter, the military authority re-
moved all the members of the Supreme Court from office and
appointed their successors. Thus ended the first of the Recon-
struction courts--that provided by the Constitution of 1866 under
presidential Reconstruction. The position of chief justice on the
10"An Act to provide for the more efficient Government of the Rebel States,
March 2, 1867," United States Statutes at Large, 39th Cong., and Sess., XIV, 428;
"An Act supplementary to an Act entitled 'An Act to provide for the more efficient
government of the Rebel States' passed March second, eighteen hundred and sixty-
seven, and to facilitate Restoration, March 23, 1867," United States Statutes at
Large, 4oth Cong., 1st Sess., XV, 2; ibid., July 1g, 1867, p. 14.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959, periodical, 1959; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/m1/186/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.