The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959 Page: 178
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
responsibility for preventing Indian raids from Texas, New
Mexico, and Arizona into the north Mexican states. It was con-
sidered impossible to stop these raids without some means of rapid
communication between points along the southern border.48
Meanwhile, Mexican claims for indemnification were reaching a
serious proportion with no prospect of a decrease in sight.
Surveyor Gray remained adamant in his refusal to sanction the
Bartlett-Cond agreement, and his position caused the Whig ad-
ministration no little distress. Secretary of the Interior A. H. H.
Stuart, on October 3, 1851, officially ordered Gray to sign the
agreement and authenticate the maps which portrayed the initial
point."4 But before Gray could refuse, he was removed from office
by Stuart, and Major William H. Emory was appointed to fill the
twin roles of surveyor and chief astronomer.45
The dispute over the location of the boundary line was further
complicated at the outset by a dispute between Lieutenant Colonel
Graham and the civilian officials, Bartlett and Gray, over the
extent of Graham's authority.46 He considered his rank next to
that of the commissioner and superior to that of Gray, since he
was placed in charge of "the scientific party." Consequently,
when the colonel arrived at El Paso, he brought with him Lieu-
tenant Ambrose Burnside who was to act as quartermaster and
assume command of the commissary, replacing George F. Bart-
lett and James Myers. Thus the Corps of Topographical Engineers
in the person of Lieutenant Colonel Graham attempted to take
over virtually all of the scientific and administrative duties of
Surveyor Gray objected to this attempted usurpation of his
authority, as he had when Major Emory attempted a similar ex-
ercise of command in the California end of the survey.47 Com-
48W. H. Emory to Volney Howard, near El Paso, December 18, 1851 (contempo-
rary copy in Yale Collection of Western Americana, Emory Papers, Sterling Me-
morial Library, Yale University), folder VIII, October-December, 1851.
44Senate Executive Documents, Send Cong., 1st Sess. (Serial No. 626), Document
No. 119, p. 118.
45House Executive Documents, 34th Cong., 1st Sess. (Serial No. 861), Document
No. 135, p. 1o.
46Senate Executive Documents, a2nd Cong., 1st Sess. (Serial No. 626), Document
No. 119, pp. 457-459-
47Whipple to Emory, Portsmouth, N. H., January 13, 185o (MS., Yale Collection
of Western Americana, Emory Papers, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University),
folder VI, January-December, 1850.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959, periodical, 1959; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/m1/221/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.