The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959 Page: 377
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Notes and Documents
[Lipan]O nation, over whom they had had the advantage; that
the Cancy composed a very populous village on the banks of the
Red River at sixty leagues from the place where M. Du Rivage
was; that the Spaniards were established at the village of the
Cancy; that they were working at taking a very heavy material
from the earth; that one could go up the Red River in high waters
to within three days journey of these nations; that sometimes
they had gone by land to their village, but that the Spaniards had
shot at them with big muskets (a term which they used to indi-
cate cannon or swivel guns).
M. Du Rivage gave the presents to these nations that I had
planned for them; he solicited them, on my part, to enter into a
good union with the French, and, concerning that which he asked
them, if they knew about the nations located toward the north on
the borders of a great river, they assured him that they were their
allies, and that the principal one of these nations was called
Touacara [Tawakoni].6* He told them then that I desired to go
have about Soo warriors; however, a year later, after a smallpox epidemic, only
about half that number remained. By 1828 there were about eighty families. In
1855 the state settled them with fragments of half a dozen other Texas tribes upon
two reservations on the upper Brazos River; in 1857 they were removed to the
Washita River in Oklahoma. They camped temporarily at the mouth of Tonkawa
Creek, immediately above present Anadarko. During the Civil War chaos, other
tribes used the opportunity to settle old scores with them because of their canni-
balism and for having served as government scouts against such western tribes as
the Comanches, Caddos, Shawnees, and Delawares, on excuse that the Tonkawas
were in league with the Confederacy, attacked the Anadarko Agency and the
Tonkawa camp in 1862, killing two agency employees and 137 Tonkawas of all
sexes. The remaining half became wanderers for years, finally being settled at Fort
Griffin, Texas, to save them from complete extermination. In 1884 the ninety-two
left were assigned land at Oakland Agency near Ponca, Oklahoma. In 1908 there
were between forty and fifty left.
o0The Lipans, bearing all the important characteristics of other Apaches, were
an Apache tribe that roamed from the Rio Grande in lower New Mexico and upper
Mexico eastward through Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. They lived partly from
plundering other tribes and whites of Texas and Mexico. The San Saba mission,
established for them in 1757, was destroyed in 1758 by Comanches, Wichitas, and
Caddos. In 1761-1762 the Franciscans founded San Lorenzo and Candelaria missions
for them, but in 1767 they met with the same fate. Between 1845 and 1856 the
Texan wars for their extermination brought great suffering to them. Most of them
were driven into Coahuila. There they lived in the Santa Rosa Mountains with
Kickapoos and other Indian refugees from the United States. In 1903 nineteen
Lipan survivors were taken to northwestern Chihuahua, and in 1905 the twenty-five
at that time were taken on to the Mescalero reservation in southern New Mexico.
elThe Tawakoni tribe is considered to have been a Caddoan tribe of the
Wichita family. Du Rivage and La Harpe (1719) seem to have been the first white
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959, periodical, 1959; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/m1/444/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.