The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959 Page: 379
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Notes and Documents
at two leagues from the Red River, on the left, in going up to
the environs of the place where M. Du Rivage had found these
nomadic nations. These people are warlike; they have nearly
always the advantage over their enemies, although inferior in
number. The Tancaoyse [Tonkawas] are renowned above the
others; the majority of the chiefs are one-eyed from arrow wounds
that they have received. These nations and the Cancy are so
hostile toward one another that the victors eat the vanquished;
they do not spare even the women nor the children. The arms of
both are the arrow and the lance. The Cancy have swords, suits,
woven materials, and some hats, but they do not have any firearms,
it being an inviolable law among the Spaniards to furnish none to
The advantage that the Cancy have over their enemies is that
they have good horses, while the other nations have few of them
and furthermore they come by the way of their adversaries. In
their encampments, they build cabins with buffalo hides cured in
the fashion of parchment; but that which is strange is that on
their marches their dogs carry these houses on their back.
It is to be observed that the chain of mountains, which extends
to beyond the Illinois, takes its origin in these cantons, at the
latitude of thirty-five degrees thirty minutes, and that from these
mountains to Santa Fe, capital city of New Mexico, there is only
Soo leagues of way to make through the prairies.
The Presidio of Parral, so famous for its riches and for its sit-
uation, located only from forty to fifty leagues from the Concho
River, which descends to the sea of California," is situated, it is
said, at about thirty-three degrees thirty minutes latitude, at
some leagues to the west of the River of the North"4 and to the
southwest of the Cancy about eighty leagues. That ought to make
known of what importance it is to maintain the posts established
on the Red River, particularly this one of the Nassonites, which
is situated by land from the Cancy nation, at whose abode the
Spaniards mine for gold, only 120o leagues of very fine country.
upper Missouri River, they are known to white men only after moving to the upper
Arkansas and Canadian rivers in Colorado and Oklahoma.
6aThis is a mistake in geography. The Mexican Concho River flows into the Rio
Grande instead of the Gulf of California.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959, periodical, 1959; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/m1/446/: accessed July 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.