The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 63, July 1959 - April, 1960 Page: 191
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Coronado: From the Rio Grande to the Concho
near the present town of Pecos,2 then traveled down the Pecos
River for four dayss according to one account. He stopped there
for four days and built a bridge over which he crossed the Pecos.
He then spent some eighteen days4 in travel eastward across the
high flat plains of New Mexico and Texas. At the east edge of the
High Plains he dropped down into a deep canyon with steep
walls like those of Colima in New Spain."
Thence he traveled four days6 and arrived at the encampments
of Teyas Indians, whose permanent homes lay in the direction of
Florida (probably in East Texas).' This place was called Cona.
pueblo of Alcanfor. "It was the southernmost of the Tiguex group, and stood on
the west bank of the river (Rio Grande) near the site of present-day Bernalillo."
See Herbert Eugene Bolton, Coronado on the Thrquois Trail: Knight of the Pueb-
los and Plains (New York, 1949), 193. Other accounts of the Coronado Expedition
are in substantial agreement with the location given in the above quotation.
IThis was the large and powerful pueblo of Cicuye two miles south of the pres-
ent Pecos, New Mexico. See W. C. Holden, "Coronado's Route across the Staked
Plains," West Texas Historical Association Year Book, XX, 3.
3Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington,
1896), Part I, 504. Hereafter this report will be referred to as Bureau of Ethnology
Report. The translated account by the Spanish historian Castafieda who accompa-
nied Coronado is given in pages 470-544 of the above report. Castafieda's arithmetic
of time and distance so accurately fits the map of Texas and New Mexico as shown
by this article that it is accepted here whenever there is a conflict with other
accounts. Other accounts in this matter of the arithmetic of travel vary widely
from Castafieda. Jaramillo, for instance, often uses such indefinite expressions as
eight or ten days.
4Bureau of Ethnology Report, 504, 505. Coronado traveled ten days from his
bridge on the Pecos until he reached the Querecho Indians on the Plains. He then
traveled two days with the Querechos. Next Coronado sent a scouting party to
travel hurriedly two days to the east and return. The army halted for a day and
then started eastward to meet the scouts, which undoubtedly means that the scouts
returned westward for only one day until they met the army. Thus the army ap-
parently traveled two days while the scouts were in transit. After the return of the
scouts, Coronado spent four days in travel and reached a canyon at the east edge of
the Plains. These details of time are ten days, two days, two days, and four days,
or a total of eighteen days.
7Ibid., 527. Castaneda here tells that the various Indians return from the Plains
to their homes for winter. He tells that each group of Indians goes back for the
winter to the settlements that are nearest, " . some to the settlements at Cicuye,
others toward Quiviro, and others to the settlements which are situated in the
direction of Florida. These people are called Querechos and Teyas." The order
of the language seems to indicate that it was the Teyas who went in the direction
of Florida. Certainly the Teyas were the Indians nearest East Texas if they were
in the Upper Brazos Valley as explained in this paper.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 63, July 1959 - April, 1960, periodical, 1960; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101186/m1/253/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.