The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 63, July 1959 - April, 1960 Page: 225
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The Texas-New Mexico Boundary Dispute
joined the Union. When Mexico attempted to block General
Zachary Taylor's efforts to occupy the disputed area, a small Mex-
ican force clashed with an American patrol near Brownsville, thus
precipitating the first engagement of the Mexican War on April
25,1846. Less than three weeks later, on May 12, 1846, the con-
flict was formalized when President James K. Polk signed a reso-
lution of the American Congress declaring a state of war to exist
between the United States and Mexico. The declaration of war
was based on the grounds that Mexico had crossed the southern
boundary of the United States and "shed American blood upon
American soil." War, therefore, existed "by act of Mexico her-
War with Mexico terminated on February 2, 1848, with the
signing of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Article V of the
treaty fixed the boundary between the United States and Mexico:
The boundary line between the two republics shall commence
in the Gulf of Mexico three leagues from land, opposite the mouth
of the Rio Grande, otherwise called the Rio Bravo del Norte, or
opposite the mouth of its deepest branch emptying directly into the
sea; from thence up the middle of the river, following the deepest
channel, where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes
the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence, westwardly, along
the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north
of the town called Paso) to its western termination; thence, north-
ward, along the West line of New Mexico, until it intersects the first
branch of the river Gila; (or if it should not intersect any branch of
that river, then to the point on the said line nearest such branch, and
thence in a direct line to the same;) thence down the middle of the
said branch and of said river, until it empties into the Rio Colorado;
thence across the Rio Colorado, following the division line between
Upper and Lower California to the Pacific Ocean.
The southern and western limits of New Mexico, mentioned in
this article, are those laid down in the map entitled "Map of the
United Mexican States as organized and defined by various acts of
Congress of said Republic, and construed according to the best
authorities. Revised edition. Published at New York, in 1847, by J.
Disturnell ... "13
12George Lockhart Rives, The United States and Mexico (2 vols.; New York,
1913), II, 158-159; House Executive Documents, 3oth Cong., Ist Sess. (Serial No.
520), Document No. 60, pp. 8-9.
13House Executive Documents, 3oth Cong., 1st Sess. (Serial No. 521), Document
No. 69, pp. 13-14.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 63, July 1959 - April, 1960, periodical, 1960; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101186/m1/293/: accessed April 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.