The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 67, July 1963 - April, 1964 Page: 159
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settled in the southern and southwestern areas, and Negroes came
with the Anglo-Americans to the eastern half of the state and still
live there. These and other racial groups have made their con-
tribution of word hoards.
The Cattle Kingdom arose in South Texas over a century ago
and spread over the Great Plains. At the present time cattle are
raised mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the state and
in the Panhandle. The area of cotton production has also shifted
and is now located especially in the southern High Plains and the
Lower Rio Grande Valley. Because of the romance and prestige
of the Cattle Kingdom of earlier years, words connected with
ranching are numerous in the vocabulary of Texas today. On the
other hand, many farming terms have become obsolescent because
of mechanization and urbanization. On the farms tractors have
been replacing Old Dobbin, and most Texans live in towns and
cities anyway, so how could the younger generation be expected to
use the word singletree? Like Mark Twain, they might have
trouble hitching up a horse. They think shafts are devices for com-
municating motion to Volkswagen.
According to Professor Atwood, since the publication of Jules
Gillieron's Atlas linguistique de la France (19o02-191o), most
dialect studies have used living speakers ("informants") for each
community included in the survey, standardized questionnaires,
trained fieldworkers to conduct the interviews, and maps indicat-
ing the distribution of word usage. The project known as the
Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada began in 193o.
The first segment to be completed and published was the Lin-
guistic Atlas of New England (1939-1943). A survey of the
Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic states has been completed but
has not been published. Other surveys have been made or are
now being made of the Great Lakes area, the upper Midwest, the
Rocky Mountain area, and the Pacific Coast states. Bagby Atwood's
The Regional Vocabulary of Texas is a major contribution to the
Linguistic Atlas of the United States.
In the investigation of Texas speech the questionnaire was
based on the work sheets of the Linguistic Atlas, but many items
suitable to the rural terrain and economy of the Southwest were
added. As it finally evolved, the questionnaire contained 246 items
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 67, July 1963 - April, 1964, periodical, 1964; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101197/m1/181/: accessed May 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.